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A Comparative Study of the Personality and the Works of Ibn Qutaiba and Abu Hanifa Dinavari, and Their Role in the Islamic History, Culture and Civilization (2)

Muhammad Qasem Ahmadi

A PhD student in the History of Islam

The first part of this article introduces Ibn Qutaiba Dinavari and discusses his personality and works. It also takes up some of personal aspects of his life, such as his name and descent, his birth place, his religious belief, his scientific status, teachers, pupils, works as well as the date of his death.

In the second part, Abu Hanifa Dinavari is introduced in the same way; then, these two well-known historians and scholars are compared to each other, and their interplay and their role in the Islamic history, culture and civilization are studied.

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Travel books and the European Literature on Travels in the Safavid Period: Peter Della Valle

Hamid Hajiyanpur

An Assistant Professor of History Department in Shiraz University

In this study, European travel books, especially those of Italian tourists including Peter Della Valle, have been studied. Besides, reviewing the factors of a rise in tourism in the second half of the 15th century and the early years of the 16th century - leading to writing travel books - is another topic of discussion in this paper. Geographical explorations with its two important consequences, one in the field of politics in the form of colonialism, and the other in the field of economics in the form of capitalism, were two important factors attracting westerners' attention to the East. In these conditions, the strategic importance of Iran and the Persian Gulf and the Iranians' interest in acquiring the martial knowledge of the West, along with other political-religious factors, drew the westerners' attention to Iran in the advent of Safavid State.

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A Review of Writing Biographies of Martyrs and the Historiography of the Ashura Event from Its Beginning Up to the Present time (2)

Muhsen Ranjbar

A Researcher and a PhD student in History of Islam

The present study deals with identifying and introducing biographies of martyrs and other writings on the history of the Ashura Event from its beginning up to the present time in two periods. The first period has been organized in two parts. The first part presents a list of biographies from beginning up to the 7th century AH; the second part gives a descriptive account of the writings on the history of the Ashra Event up to the 7th century AH. The second period which is dedicated to the biographies and writings of the same kind from the 8th to the 14th century AH. is divided into two parts. In the first part, after an introduction, some important writings from the 8th century up to the present age are identified and introduced; and in the second part, the most important writings of the contemporary ages, with the important role they have played in presenting spurious and even fictitious accounts about the Ashura Event, have been introduced.

As stated in the previous issue of the journal, due to the fact that this study is extensive, it is presented in three sections. The first one (from the beginning up to the 7th century, in two parts) was presented in the previous issue of the journal, and the following section, i.e. the second one, appears in this issue. The third section, related to the second period, will be presented in the next issue.

The Idea of Rule-Governed History from the Viewpoints of Reason and Religion (1)

Javad Suleymani

A Postgraduate student in Theoretical Foundations of Islam

The scientists who believe that history as a course of events has a certain model have asserted that the course of history is rule-governed. In contrast, some others who have viewed the course of history as casual and unpredictable have actually rejected the idea that society and history are rule-governed. A third group holds this as something impossible to prove or discover.

In the Holy Qur'an and the Imams' sayings too, it is stated - explicitly or implictly - that history is rule-governed; and thus, men are invited to learn something from the history of the people in ancient times. So this view has been asserted and approved by many religious scholars as an undoubtable fact. There can be found, however, some disagreements among historians, sociologists, and history philosophers both on whether or not history is rule-governed and on how it is rule-governed. In the first part of the article, the writer has reviewed the existing views on whether history is rule-governed or casual; then he has discussed the relationships between the rules governing history and human freedom. Then, in the second part, he has presented the Qur'anic reasons on this subject and investigated its relationship with human freedom. It is worth noting that, due to the length of this article, the second part of this article will be presented in the next issue of this journal.

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Imam Ali (a) and His Argumentation for the Ghadir Tradition

Muhammad Anvar Fayyazi

An M.A. student in the history of Shiism

Ghadir is an undenaiable historical fact in Islam and will never be forgotten. Thus, Imam Ali (A), from the very first days of Abu Bakr's caliphate would refer and attest to Ghadir Khomm as the evidence for his right to the caliphate and the rightful successor of the prophet Muhammad and the leader of the Muslim community, in addition to enumerating his own merits which would cause him to deserve being a caliph.

Imam Ali's mentioning the important event of Ghadir and his referring to it repeatedly was, in effect, a challenge to the usurpers of the caliphate. He did so both in facing with Abu Bakr and, afterwards, during the reign of the other Caliphs; and even on his accession to caliphate, he would refer and attest to Ghadir Khumm at which the Prophet made an announcement to the pilgrims who accompanied him and chose and appointed him (Imam Ali) as his rightful successor after him.

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Justice House (`Idalat-khana): From a "Religious Movement" Towards a "Political Regime"

Zabihullah Naimiyan

A PhD student of Political Sciences

Before the constitutional revolution and the establishment of constitutional government, a movement called "the movement of Idalat-khana (Justice House)" was formed, which had great influence on the formation of constitutionalism in Iran. This model of `Idalat-khana, however, did not manage to develop into a full-fledged system of government. This religious movement was a reflection of Iranians' religio-political demands in the modern age when the colonialism-oriented autocracy was raging; but in the midway, this movement underwent deep transformation. In the meanwhile, the concept of `Idalat-khana became subject to contvoversies and its notion wavered between western juridical-parliamentary models and the conventional parliament of guilds and groups of people, each group or faction trying to give it a sense based on its own views and leanings. Thus, finally the local capacity of this idea remained close to the western models, and it was replaced by the concept constitutionalism, not allowing the movement of justice to develop into the `Idalat-khana system.

A Review of the Time of and the Reason for Imam Ali's Giving Allegiance to Abu Bakr

Muhammad Javad Yavari

An M.A. student in History of Shi'ism

The history of allegiance or a formal public acknowledgement of allegiance as a mutual pact among Arabs can be traced back to pre-Islamic period. This social custom has been admitted in Islam too, and the Prophet made use of it. In the Islamic history, the rulers have always viewed peopl's homage and their oath of allegiance as a means for the solidarity of their government, and always considered themselves in need of people's support and confidence. In Islam, the principal characteristic of allegiance lies in the fact that it is voluntary; otherwise, it would be illegtimate and invalid.

After the demise of the Prophet, on the day of Saqifa, a groupwith a predetermined plan appointed Abu Bakr as the Caliph. They did their best to stabilize his authority. They even won homage for him by using force. Ali (pbuh) and some members of Banu Hashim were at the head of those dissenting Abu Bakr's Caliphate.

In this paper, an attempt is made to prove that Ali's allegiance to Abu Bakr after the Prophet's demise was taken by force in rushing to Fatima's house. Of course, his oath of allegiance took place after the martyrdom of Fatima (pbuh) and was based on expediency and preserving Islamic unity. Thus, at the time when Abu Bakr was striving against apostates, Imam Ali was obliged to swear allegiance to him.

Vol.4, No. 3, Autumn 1386 A.H.S

Proprietor: Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute

Licence Holder: Dr. Muhammad Reza Jabbari

Editor in Chief: Mahdi Pishvai

Executive Director: Majid RobatJazi

Editorial Board:

Professor, Instructor Training University Dr. Sadiq AyinevandAssistant Professor, Imam Sadiq University Dr. Muhsen AlviriResearch Manager, History Department, Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute Hujjat al-Islam Mahdi PishvaeAssistant Professor, Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute Dr. Muhammad Reza JabbariProfessor & Researcher working on the Quranic Sciences and the history of Islam, Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute Hujjat al-Islam Yaqub JafariAssociate Professor, Isfahan University Dr. Sayyed Asghar MahmudabadiAssistant Professor, Isfahan University Dr. Asghar Muntazir al-QaemProfessor, Al-Zahra University Dr. Ali Muhammad ValaviProfessor & Researcher working on the history of Islam and Shiism. Hujjat al-Islam Muhammad Hadi Yusefi Gharavi

Scholarly Collaborators:

Faculty Member, Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute Muhammad DashtiResearcher worikng on the history of Islam and Shiism Muhsen RanjbarFaculty Member, Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute Javad SoleimaniFaculty Member of the Islamic Education Department at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences Dr. Ali Gholami Dehaqiassitant Prosessor Teacher training University Dr. Husein MoftakhariA Researcher on history, Geography and theolojy Ali Maleki MiyanejiFaculty Member, Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute Hamed Muntazerimuqaddam


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