Abstracts

A Review of the Article Entitled

"The Study of Arbitration Affair from a Different Perspective"

Muhammad Muhsen Tabasi*

Quite recently, an article entitled "The Study of Arbitration Affair from a Different Perspective" was published in a journal at the southeast region of our country in which there appeared some remarks which provoked a careful reconsideration as well as a criticism. In that article, the writer makes an analysis of the "Arbitration Affair" and tries to clear up some guilts and doubts leveled at the major figures of Arbitration. The present paper is trying to elucidate the issue by making some references to reliable and old Sunni sources, dealing with the major points of the above-mentioned article in six line of discussion.

Making Some Corrections to Historical Mistakes Committed by Experts on ridjal (transmitters of hadiths) about the Martyrs of Karbala

Ipahim Salehi Najaf-abadi*

History is a mirror which reflecs some realities, and is much applicable in

science of ridjal (the study of biographies of the transmitters of hadiths) as well as in writing biographies in general. It is impossible to acquire the biographies of transmitters of hadiths properly unless some references are made to works of history. The present article has dealt with the inquiry on some people alleged to be among the martyrs of Karbala, concluding that in some works of Redjal, some people in the camp of the enemies of Imam Hussein have been enumerated among the martyrs; thus, a comprehensive and precise review of history of the Infallible (may peace be upon them), especially that of the Event of Karbala, seems necessary.

A Study on the Arrival of Islam in Iran

Habib Zamani Mahjoob*

A survey on why and how Muslims entered Iran and how Islam spread relatively fast throughout this country during the first centuries after Hejira is among subjects with which the researchers are still concerned. Being aware of political and religious conditions in Iran on the eve of the arrival of Muslim Arabs, the moods and thoughts of the Muslim army as opposed to the Iranian army, and more importantly, the attractions and merits of Islam as opposed to the distorted Zoroastrianism would lead us to understand the reasons why Iranians abandoned the old Zoroastrianism and converted to Islam. The present article uses a theoretical and analytical approach in investigating the manner of and reason for arrival of Islam in Iran.

The Mongols' Religious Tolerance toward Encountering the Religious Thoughts of the Mongol Empire Subjects

Ma‘soma Dehqan*

Throughout human history, religious beliefs and thoughts have been the most prominent basis for establishing good ties or hostile relations among nations interacting with one another. In the present study, the researcher has made an attempt to investigate Mongols' religious and doctrinal conceptions as well as their treat of religions they encountered in the course of their conquests. The Mongols' religious tolerance seems to have stemmed from their sense of laxity, their ignorance of religions or their indifference towards religious rites, beliefs and customs of their dependent nations (subjects). The present article has been written with some references to the historical sources about Mongols' conquests as well as the researches conducted in later centuries.

The Iranian Historians of Deccan

Muhammad Zaman Khoda'i*

Iranians used to call the southern part of Indian subcontinent Deccan. It seems that from distant past there have been strong relations between Iran and Deccan. The historical and mythological evidences and sources of Iran have made repeated references to the old deep-rooted relations between the two nations until India gained formal independence .

The relations continued in the Islamic era of Iran and reached its pick of glory during the Safavids. During the Safavid's rule, the Sh‘ia kings of Deccan included the names of the Safavid's kings as their overlord kings and religious preceptors in Friday Congregational prayers . It was obvious that the enhancement of ties between Iran and Deccan before and after Iranians converted to Islam has caused many works of history to appear.

Morgan Shuster in Iran

Fatima Sadat Jalali Chimah*

When the emergent Constitutional Parliament decided to employ experts from various countries to reform the administration system of Iran, both Russia and pitain were incensed by this decision - a decision which would organize the economic system of the country. One of the most famous figures among these experts was Morgan Shuster who, obtaining a formal wide-ranging authorization from the parliament, began to make far-reaching reformations in financial affairs as well as customs. Russia gave warnings to Iran, threatening her with two ultimatums, and requesting Iran to deport Morgan Shuster. In spite of resistance on the part of Iranian people, members of the parliament and the clerics, Morgan was finally deported with the pitain's support, and his reformations were left unfulfilled.

Abstracts

Translated by: Seyyed Rahim Rastitabar

Karkh of Baghdad: the Base of Shi'ism

in the 4th and 5th Centuries A.H.

Muhammad Qasem Ahmadi*

Karkh is one of the quarters of Baghdad formed after the latter had built; Shi'ites gradually moved to that quarter. The reasons why Shi'ites' moved to Karkh, and why the people of that quarter converted to Shi'ism are as follows:

1)Karkh was near to Baratha Mosque and Imam Kazem's Shrine and that of Imam Jawad.

2) It was on the caravans' path from Kufa to Baghdad, whose member were mostly Shi'ites.

3) There were some Shi'ite leading figures such as Hisham b. Hakam, etc.

Great Shi'ite scholars such as Sheikh Mufid, Sayyid Murteza, Sayyid Razi and Sheikh Tusi, especially under Buwayhids, made Karkh a center for their scientific, religious and political activities; thus they played an important role in growth and spread of Shiism.

Table of Contents

Karkh of Baghdad: the Base of Shi'ism in the 4th and 5th Centuries A.H 7

Muhammad Qasem Ahmadi

Morgan Shuster in Iran 37

Fatima Sadat Jalali Chimah

The Iranian Historians of Deccan 73

Muhammad Zaman Khoda'i

The Mongols' Religious Tolerance toward Encountering the Religious Thoughts of the Mongol Empire Subjects 89

Ma‘soma Dehqan

A Study on the Arrival of Islam in Iran 121

Habib Zamani Mahjoob

Making Some Corrections to Historical Mistakes Committed by Experts on ridjal (transmitters of hadiths) about the Martyrs of Karbala 145

Ipahim Salehi Najaf-abadi

A Review of the Article Entitled "The Study of Arbitration Affair from a Different Perspective" 175

Muhammad Muhsen Tabasi

Vol.6, No. 2, Summer 2009

Proprietor: Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute

Licence Holder: Dr. Muhammad Reza Jabbari

Editor in Chief: Mahdi Pishvai

Executive Director: Majid RobatJazi

Editorial Board

Dr. Sadiq Ayinevand Professor, Instructor Training University

Dr. Muhsen Alviri Assistant Professor, Imam Sadiq Universit

Hujjat al-Islam Mahdi Pishvae Research Manager, History Department, Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute

Dr. Muhammad Reza Jabbari Assistant Professor, Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute

Hujjat al-Islam Ya'qub Ja'fari Professor & Researcher working on the Quranic Sciences and the history of Islam, Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute

Dr. Muhsen Ranjbar

Hujjat al-islam Javad Soleimani

Dr. Sayyed Asghar Mahmudabadi

Assistant Professor, Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute

Associate Professor, Isfahan University

Faculty Member, Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute

Dr. Asghar Muntazir al-Qaem Associate Professor, Isfahan University

Dr. Hamed Muntazwri Mugaddam

Dr. Ali Muhammad Valavi Assistant Professor, Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute

Associate Professor, Al-Zahra University

Hujjat al-Islam Muhammad Hadi Yusefi Gharavi Professor & Researcher working on the history of Islam and Shiism

Scholarly Collaborators

Muhammad Dashti Faculty Member, Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute

Ahmad Rahdar A PH.D Student of Politticl Sciences

Ali Reza Shalbaf MA in history of Islam in instractor Training University

Ali Gholami Dehaqi

Assistant Professore' Isfahan Medicine University

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