Abstracts

 

The Political Thought of Sheikh Ja'far Kāshif al-Ghitā'

Hussein Abadiyan* / Zahra Munazzah**

Being familiar more and more with political thought of religious scholars and studying their life and struggles are among the principal tasks of contemporary researchers. An attempt has been made in this study to briefly explain the political thought of Sheikh Ja'far Kāshif al-Ghitā', especially on the Wilayat-e Faqih (Jurist's Guardianship). He authorized Qajar Fath-Ali Shah to declare Jihad based on the same principle, making him his own lieutenant. Therefore, this study is an attempt to present a biography of this great scholar, an explanation of his struggles in Qajar period, as well as his political thought on the role of religious scholars in government in view of practical instances.

KEY WORDS: Sheikh Ja'far Kāshif al-Ghitā', government, political thought, scholars, Wilayat-e Faqih, Qajar

 

The Relation between
Religion and State under Sarbedars

Mahdi Fathiniā*

The Sarberdars' government was formed in a milieu where the surrounding governments, including that of the Al-e Kart, were of Sunni religion while being under pressure by the Mongols. In such a milieu, the religious scholars were the only means for protecting this government and promoting the true Shi'ah religion. Therefore, the government depended on these scholars for its survival, and these scholars ,too, needed the Sarbedarid government for promoting Shi'ism.

At the outset, the Sarbedars made use of the influence of Sufi scholars to strengthen their government. At the end, with the spread of Shi'ism in Beihaq region, the Sabedars needed jurists more than Sufis. To meet this need, thus, the last Sarbedarid, Ali bin Mu'ayyid, wrote a letter to Shahid I trying to invite him to come to Beihaq region; this attempt, however, failed. Therefore, it is not worthwhile to clarify further the relationship between Sarbedars and the religious scholars.

KEY WORDS: Sarbedars' rising and government, Sufis, jurists

A Historical Investigation of
Epic-Mythological Approach to the Ashura Incident
(From the Safawid Period up to the Constitutionalism Period)

Muhsen Ranjbar*

The present study deals with a historical investigation of one of the most important and most famous readings of Ashura incident, i.e. the epic-mythological reading from the Safawid Period up to the Constitutionalism Period (with an emphasis on biographies of martyrs). Accordingly, after stating the meaning of the two terms of epic and myth, as well as the relation between them, the historical background of this approach has been explained here. A historical investigation of this approach, i.e. an analysis of features, backgrounds, and the factors which contributed to the birth and spread of this approach have been studied.

KEY WORDS: Imam Hussein, Ashura, epic-mythological reading, Safawid, Qajar

A Critical Review of the
Accounts on the Agnomen "Abū-torāb"

Mahdi Pishvae* / Majid Robatjazi**

Abū-torāb is one of Imam Ali's honorary agnomens used by the holy Prophet at the Battle of Zāt al-Ashīra, addressing Imam Ali. Apart from that battle, in some other occasions also, Imam Ali was addressed by the holy Prophet in this way. Imam Ali's interest in this agnomen betrays its being eulogistic; however, there are some accounts suggesting that the holy Prophet used this agnomen as an insult to Imam Ali. The present paper is seeking to make a critical review of these accounts through their related texts and authorities.

KEY WORDS: Abū-torāb, God's Messenger, Imam Ali, her majesty Zahra, Zāt al-Ashīra, fabricating traditions

A Study of the Events after
the Martyrdom of Imam Hussein

Muhammad Rezā Jabbāri*

The incident of Ashura and the martyrdom of Imam Hussein are of utmost importance in the history of humanity. The greatness of this incident can be studied through analyzing its backgrounds and the causes, as well as its repercussions and effects. The greatness of this incident is marked by the dramatic events, most of which occurring in an extraordinary manner following the martyrdom of Imam Hussein. Some of these events were relating to the elements of the universe such as the sun, the moon, the stars and the earth. Some others were relating to the prophets and the angles; there were still others relating to the jinn and some special animals, and others relating to human beings. In the present paper, through a review of the Shi'ah and Sunni traditions, these happenings have been investigated in ten lines of discussions.

KEY WORSD: Ashura, Imam Hussein, extraordinary events, dramatic happenings, lunar eclipse, red and black storms, raining of ash and blood, the crying of the elements of universe, the prophets' crying, the crying of the angles, the crying of the jinn, the crying of the animals

A Review and Evaluation of
al-Futūh with an Approach to the Incident of Karbala

Nematullah Safari Furushani* / Muhammad Ali Towhidi**

Through exploring biographies and bibliographies of the 3rd and 4th centuries, one can find that the book entitled "al-Futūh" and its author are not in their proper position. Similarly, the biography of Kufan Ibn ’A'tham, his identity, religion, works and other dimensions of his life have not yet been precisely identified. The present study has taken form on the necessity of having more identification of the book al-Futūh and a search in the biography of its author. Although al-Futūh has been overshadowed due to some accounts inconsistent with Sunni spirit, the real religious affiliation of the author, who was seriously committed to the religion of the caliphs, can be identified. Although Ibn ’A'tham does not give the sources of his accounts properly, al-Futūh brings conventional assurance for the readers due to the expertise of its author, as well as its being specialized and the geometric relevance of its historical accounts.

KEY WORDS: Kufan Ibn A'tham, al-Futūh, religion, historiography, documents, the incident of Karbala

 

Abstracts

 

Translated by: Seyyed Rahim Rastitabar

The Function of Customs in Naseri Period

Farajollah Ahmadi* / Mas'ood Atashgarān**

The present study is seeking to present a clear picture of the customs in Naseri period. Included in this study are these topics: the quality of Iranian tariff system in that period, its management and its function. The influence of Russian commercial bourgeoisie and that of British industrial capitalism on Iran's economy and their impact on tariff system of this country represents, above all, the necessity of a concern for customs and fundamental reformations. Through a scrutiny of the documents, however, it becomes clear that the function of the customs in that period was focused just on its profit-making aspect and the revenues obtained through it; it would hardly serve as a preventive tool for supporting domestic productions and business transactions. It thus seems not to have a defensible function.

KEY WORDS: the function of the customs, tariff system, tariff

 

Table of Contents

The Function of Customs in Naseri Period / Farajollah Ahmadi / Mas'ood Atashgarān 5

A Review and Evaluation of al-Futūh with an Approach to the Incident of Karbala / Nematullah Safari Furushani* / Muhammad Ali Towhidi....................................................................... 35

A Study of the Events after the Martyrdom of Imam Hussein / Muhammad Rezā Jabbāri 67

A Critical Review of the Accounts on the Agnomen "Abū-torāb" / Mahdi Pishvae / Majid Robatjazi 123

A Historical Investigation of Epic-Mythological Approach to the Ashura Incident (From the Safawid Period up to the Constitutionalism Period) / Muhsen Ranjbar.................................. 153

The Relation between Religion and State under Sarbedars / Mahdi Fathiniā 181

The Political Thought of Sheikh Ja'far Kāshif al-Ghitā' / Hussein Abadiyan / Zahra Munazzah 209

Vol.6, No. 3, Fall 2009

Proprietor: Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute

Licence Holder: Dr. Muhammad Reza Jabbari

Editor in Chief: Mahdi Pishvai

Executive Director: Majid RobatJazi

Editorial Board

Dr. Sadiq Ayinevand

Professor, Instructor Training University

Dr. Muhsen Alviri

Assistant Professor, Imam Sadiq Universit

Hujjat al-Islam Mahdi Pishvae

Research Manager, History Department, Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute

Dr. Muhammad Reza Jabbari

Associate Professor, Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute

Hujjat al-Islam Ya'qub Ja'fari

Professor & Researcher working on the Quranic Sciences and the history of Islam, Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute

Dr. Muhsen Ranjbar

Hujjat al-islam Javad Soleimani

Dr. Sayyed Asghar Mahmudabadi

Assistant Professor, Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute

Associate Professor, Isfahan University

Faculty Member, Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute

Dr. Asghar Muntazir al-Qaem

Associate Professor, Isfahan University

Dr. Hamed Muntazwri Mugaddam

Dr. Ali Muhammad Valavi

Assistant Professor, Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute

Associate Professor, Al-Zahra University

Hujjat al-Islam Muhammad Hadi Yusefi Gharavi

Professor & Researcher working on the history of Islam and Shiism

 

 

Scholarly Collaborators

Muhammad Dashti

Faculty Member, Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute

Ali Gholami Dehaqi

Assistant Professore' Isfahan Medicine University

Musa Faqih Haqqani

The Chif Editor of the Quarterly "Tarikh Mo'asir" and the Researches Assisstant or Researches assairs of the Institute for Contemporary history Studies

 

 

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* Associate Professor of History Department in Imam Khomeini International University/ Qazvin

** MA in History of Islamic Revolution/ Imam Khomeini International University/ Qazvin

* Seminary Graduate and MA Student in History of Shi'ism Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute

* Assistant Professor in Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute

* Research Manager, History Department, Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute

** Graduate from Seminary and MA Student of Shiite History/ Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute

* Associate Professor in Imam Khomeini's Educational and Research Institute

* Assistant Professor in al-Mustafa International University/ Imam Khomeini Higher Education Complex

** PhD Student in al-Mustafa International University

* Assistant Professor, Tehran University.

** MA of History of Iran in Islamic Period / Tehran University

* Assistant Professor in al-Mustafa International University/ Imam Khomeini Higher Education Complex