Abstracts

The Relations between Umayyad Caliphs and Dhimmi Christians (protected non-Muslim People) and Their Role in the Development of Muslims' Sciences

Ali Mohammad Valavi* / Maryam Yadollahpoor** / Ma'soomeYadollahpoor***

Abstract

Taking Damascus as the capital of Caliphate during the Umayyad period prepared the ground for developing direct relations between Caliphs and Christians. Since most of the Syrians in those days were Christians, Caliphs had to follow a kind of permissive policy towards Christians. The permissive attitude of most Umayyad Caliphs towards Christians and not imposing social and religious restrictions on them lent the Christians high status in Umayyad period. Due to Muslim’s lack of knowledge of governmental affairs in subjugated territories. Christians dominated Muslims' administrative institutions in Umayyad period. Furthermore, due to their skill in medicine and proficiency in Greek and Syrian, Christians had an important role in developing sciences in medicine and translation of books in Umayyad period. The present paper reviews the social, economical, religious, and political conditions of Zimmi Christians in Umayyad period and investigates their role in developing Muslims' sciences.

Key words: social, economical, political, and religious life, Zimmi Christians, Muslims, Umayyad Caliphs, jizyah, bureaucracy, translation, medicine.

6 An Investigation of Ibn AbilHadid's Historical Sources in His Explanation of Nahjul-Balagha

Ali Akbar Forati / * Mohsen Raf'at**

Abstract

One of the most important modern sources of historical studies is Ibn AbilHadid's explanation of Najhul-Balagha. The authors of the present paper, reviewing the historical sources IbnIbilHadid has cited, mention some of the features of his historical method, and in some works provide exposition of the nature of the source and whether or not it exists. Careful studies of these works in particular can be made on the basis of this brief introduction.

Key words: explanation of the Nahjul- Balagha, IbnAbilHadid, history, historical sources.

A Comparative Study of Abbasid Da'wat Organization and Representation Organization of the Twelvers; Stages of Formation and Causes of Emergence

Mohammad Reza Jabbari * / Mohammad KazemMalboobi**

Abstract

The Abbasid Da'wat organization and the Representation Organization of the Twelvers were two secret organizations which were active in different regions of the Islamic territories. Shiite Imams, when alive, used to communicate with Shiites through the Representation Organization. The Abbasids, too, used emissaries to disseminate their ideas. An accurate historical judgment about the function of Shiite Imams and Shiites, and that of the Abbasids and their followers would be possible through a comparative analysis of these two organizations.

The main question with which this paper concerned is: what are the differences and similarities between these two organizations with respect to the stages of formation and causes of emergence? The Abbasids were inheritors of Abu Hashim's Da'wat Organization, while the Twelvers themselves established their own Representation Organization. Among the causes of emergence of these two organizations were the struggle to achieve their aims, suppression, the activities of the rivals, good paved grounds, necessity of communication with followers, and gathering finances.The difficulty of communication between Imam (A.S) and Shiites, and preparation for the occultation period were other causes of emergence of the Representation Organization.

Key words:the Twelvers, representative, representation, emissary, da'wat (invitation), the Abbasid, Abbasids

Types of Divorce of the paganism Era, How Islam Dealt with and theEvolution of Divorce System with the Advent of Islam

Mahdi Pishvai, *FaridehPishvai**

Abstract

One of the wrong customs and rules of the culture of the pre- Islamic era was the etiquette of divorce, against which Islam fought. The decadent position of woman and dominance of patriarchy in society in the pre-Islamic era were behind the cruel attitude shown towards women in divorce system. Divine law of Islam reformed and modified most of the divorce rules of that period, giving special attention to woman's genuine identity and humanity. Practically, Islam denounced some types of divorces common in the period of paganism, confirmed some other types and recommended that women's rights be observed and it promulgated some other types.

The present research, discussing and explaining the different types of divorces of pre-Islamic era, and pointing out the effects of the doctrines of Islam on the evolution of divorce system in that era, seeks to prove that the change in the divorce system of the pre-Islamic era is attributed to the advent of Islam.

Key words: pre-Islamic era, Islam, divorce, woman.

Sufism and Its Social Outcomes in Seljukid Period Saleh Pargari

Saleh Pargari* / Seyyed Morteza Husseini**

Abstract

The present paper tries to indentify the factors influencing the development of Sufism and explains its outcomes in Seljukid period. In this period, Sufis enjoyed the support of the ruling class, and jurists tried to incorporate religious law into the esoteric path of Sufism. Furthermore, the doctrinal confusion caused the society to face crisis which prepared the grounds for the development of a sort of Sufism compatible with people's morale. The development of Sufism has positive and negative effects, both of which have been investigated.

Key words: Sufism, the Seljuks, development of Sufism, jurists.

Typology of Uprisings Seeking Vengeance for Imam Hussein (A.S); the Penitents and Mokhtar

Abbas Ahmadvand* / BahramBahrami / ** Sa'adatGhazanfari***

Abstract

The aim of the uprisings of the Penitents and Mokhtar was to seek vengeance for killing Imam Hussein (A.S) and the leaders of these uprisings had different viewpoints and different revolutionary methods. The penitents were more inclined to compensate for their heedlessness towards those were responsible for the massive bloodshed in the plain of Taf (Karbala) and they applied very strict and harsh standards in mobilizing forces. Hence, they believed that the only way to achieve their aim was to sacrifice their lives, and to them, the end and the means had equal significance. The penitents' religious viewpoint and the way they proposed to achieve their aim did not enjoy the acceptance the people of Kufa at that time and so they could not achieve the aim of uprising. In contrast, Mokhtar took over Kufa and punished most of the killers who took part in the massive bloodshed in Taf plain (Karbala), using acumen, foresight, and different means,though, he was conquered by Zubayri troops and his uprising did not last long.

Key words: difference of opinion, Shiite revolutionary methods, comparison and conformity of uprisings, acumen, thePenitents, Mokhtar.


* Associate professor, Al-Zahra University

** A.M, in history of Islam, Al-Zahra University

*** A.M. Shahid Beheshti University masoom8227@yahoo.com

Received: 2011/1/16 - Accepted: 2011/4/21

* P.hd Student in Language & Arabic literature Theran University a.forati@yahoo.com  , a.forati@gmail.com

** A.M in the Quranic Sciencies and Hadith, Tehran University, Pardis in Qom.

Received: 2010/4/3 - Accepted: 2011/1/8

* Associate professor, IKI.

** A.M of Islamic History and Civilization, Qom University of Islamic Knowledge

Mmalboobi@Yahoo.com

Received: 2011/3/13 - Accepted: 2011/4/25

* Research Manager, History Department IKI, & Graduate of Seminary (Level 4)

** Graduate of Seminary (Level 3) fpisvaei@gmail.com

Received: 2010/12/6 - Accepted: 2011/3/6

* Associate professor, History Department, Teachers Education University in Tehran

** A.M, in the History of Islam Iran, Teachers Education University in Tehran

hashem.hosani@yahoo.com

Received: 2010/8/4 - Accepted: 2010/11/3

* Assistant Professor, Zanjan University. a.ahmadwand@gmail.com

** Assistant Professor, Zanjan University.

*** A.M. History & Culture Department, Zanjan University.


Received: 2011/2/16 - Accepted: 2011/3/19

Table of Contents

Typology of Uprisings Seeking Vengeance for Imam Hussein (A.S); the Penitents and Mokhtar / Abbas Ahmadvand, BahramBahrami, Sa'adatGhazanfari

3 Sufism and Its Social Outcomes in Seljukid Period / Saleh Pargari / Seyyed Morteza Husseini

Types of Divorce of the paganism Era, How Islam Dealt with and theEvolution of Divorce System with the Advent of Islam / Mahdi Pishvai / Farideh Pishvai

A Comparative Study of Abbasid Da'wat Organization and Representation Organization of the Twelvers; Stages of Formation and Causes of Emergence / Mohammad Reza Jabbari / Mohammad KazemMalboobi

An Investigation of Ibn AbilHadid's Historical Sources in His Explanation of Nahjul-Balagha / Ali Akbar Forati / Mohsen Raf'at

The Relations between Umayyad Caliphs and Dhimmi Christians (protected non-Muslim People) and Their Role in the Development of Muslims' Sciences / Ali Mohammad Valavi, Maryam Yadollahpoor, Ma'soomeYadollahpoor

In the Name of Allah

Tārikh dar Āyene-ye Pazhuhesh Vol.7, No.3

A Quarterly And Scholarly Journal of Historical Researches Fall 2010

Concessionary: Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute

Manager:Dr. Muhammad Reza Jabbari

Editor in chief: Mahdi Pishvai

Translation of Abstracts:Language Department of IKI.

 

 

Editorial Board:

ª Dr. Sadiq Ayinevand:Professor,Instructor TrainingUniversity

ª Dr. Muhsen Alviri: Assistant Professor, Imam Sadiq Universit

ª Hujjat al ـIslam Mahdi Pishvae:Research Manager, History Department,IKI

ª Dr. Muhammad Reza Jabbari:Associate Professor, IKI

ª Hujjat al ـ Islam Ya'qub Ja'fari: Professor & Researcher working on the Quranic Sciences and the history of Islam, IKI

ª Dr. Muhsen Ranjbar:Assistant Professor, IKI

ª Hujjat al ـ islam Javad Soleimani: Associate Professor, Isfahan University

ª Dr. Sayyed Asghar Mahmudabadi: Faculty Member, IKI

ª. Dr. Asghar Muntazir al ـ Qaem: Associate Professor, IsfahanUniversity

ª Dr. Hamed Muntazwri Mugaddam:Assistant Professor, IKI

ª Dr. Ali Muhammad Valavi: Associate Professor, Al ـ Zahra University

ª Hujjat al ـ Islam Muhammad Hadi Yusefi Gharavi: Professor & Researcher working on the history of Islam and Shiism

 

 

Scholarly Collaborators

ª Mahdi Abutalebi: Faculty Member, IKI.

ª Hosein Izadi: Faculty Member, Bagher al-Olum University

ª Muhammad Dashti: Resercher Working on the history of Islam and Iran

ª Ali Gholami Dehaqi: Assistant Professore' Isfahan Medicine University

ª Hosein Moradinasab: Assistant Professor, History Department, Research center of the seminary and university

 

 

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