Abstracts

 

An Investigation into the Religious, Social, and Political Life of Dhemmi (Free Non- Muslims Subject to Live in a Muslim Country) Christians
(During the reign of first Caliphs and Imam Ali)

Ali Mohammad valavi·, Maryam Yadullahpoor,·· Ma'soomeh Yadullahpoor···

Abstract

After the advent of Islam, the clear terms of the Holy Qur'an determined to improve relations between Muslims and People of the Book. According to Sura Tawba (The Repentance), verse 29, people of the Book could remain loyal to their religion, if they would like, and pay per capita tax, called tribute, in return for having permission to live in the Islamic society. The Holy Prophet strengthened his relations with Christians in compliance with the aforementioned verse. The number of Dhemmi Christians increased after the conquest of Christian settlements during the reign of the first Caliphs. The increase of population caused new debates on how the religious and sociopolitical relationships between Muslims and Dhemmi Christians can be established. Therefore, it was necessary to pass and implement new rules to determine the religious and sociopolitical position of Dhemmi people in the Islamic society. The present paper tries to investigate the religious and sociopolitical rights of the Dhemmi people during the reign of the first Caliphs.

Key words: social, political, and religious life, tribute, Christians, Dhemmi Christians, the first four Caliphs,

 

 

The Role of Abrahamic Prophets in Bringing Civilization; Unrest and Solutions (A Case Study: the Prophet Moses)

Asqar Montazar al- Qa'im,* Zahra Soleimani**

Abstract

The process of bringing civilization to the prophets' governments has always been one of the important and challenging issues in the study of culture and civilization. No doubt, the analysis of its historical instances will contribute enormously to understanding the issue and theorizing about it. The Holy Qur'an attributes wisdom and power to Prophet Moses (Sura 28, Al-Qasas (the Stories): verse 14), which shows that the divine sovereignty gives special attention to the necessity of wisdom and power in religious government system. Enjoying these two characteristics and standing firmly against political and cultural disturbances, Prophet Moses (A.S) provided a systematized program to reform the society and build a religious society. The present research concentrates on this issue.

Key words: Prophet Moses (A.S), religious government, bringing civilization, progress, disturbance.

 

 

Ibn Fahad al-Hilli: a Sufi or Gnostic Jurist

Ali Gholami Dahaghi,* Amir Hsan Mozaffarizad**

Abstract

Ahmad b. al-Fahad Hilli is one of the scholars whom some writers consider as a sufi who inclined towards sufism basing their idea on the works and disciples attributed to him. The present research devotes much attention to his works and disciples to prove the veracity or falsity of such a claim. This idea of attribution becomes more valid when we know that Mohammad b. Fallah, one of Ahmad's disciples and the founder of a Shiʿah government, Mosha'sha'ites, promoted such a claim to legitimize his sovereignty. Despite the scarcity of information on this issue, the researcher has used a library method in his investigation of the latest researches in this regard.

Key words: Ibn Fahad al- Hilli, Mohammad b. Fallah, Mohammad b. 'Abdullah Noorbakhsh, Mosha'sha'ites, Islamic jurisprudence, sufism.

 

 

An Analysis of the Process of Britain's Gaining Control over the Persian Gulf (From Mid-Safavid to the End of the First Half of the Qajar Dynasty: 1030 - 1264 'AH'/1620 – 1847'AD')

Mohammad Shoormij*

Abstract

The Persian Gulf has always been one of the very crucial, strategic, and commercial regions of the Middle East; therefore, it has undergone various changes throughout history. One of the important issues which is worth considering regarding the Persian Gulf is how colonialists, particularly the British, dominated its coastal area, especially the area under Iran's sovereignty. The present research investigates how Britain gained control over the shores of the Persian Gulf and weakened Iran's political power, from mid-Safavid to the beginning of Nassir al-Din Shah's reign (1030 – 1264 'AH'). The main aim of this research is to investigate how local tribes and Arabs came to power in the Persian Gulf and how Britain's policy helped them to have control over the region.

Key words: the Persian Gulf, Britain, local sovereignty, Iran's sovereignty, Arab tribes of the Persian Gulf.

 

 

Sheikh Safi al-Din Ardabili's School of Thought

Asghar Heidari*

Abstract

We need to do further scientific and historical research if we want to know the different aspects of the life of Sheikh Safi al-Din Ardabili, the great grandfather of Safavid kings. There have been various and sometimes contradictory discussions and debates about his school of thought and siyadat (being one of the descendents of the Holy Prophet). These two issues led some researchers to show strange hostility towards the Sheikh and the Safavids, and some other researchers to hold him in deep respect (by considering his high status and nearness to Imams). It is particularly important to investigate whether he followed the Shiʿa or Sunni school of thought in our study of the Safavid kings, because it was they who officially recognized Twelver Shi'ism as the religion of Iran. The present paper tries to answer these questions providing a scientific and historical research based on evidence and findings of historiography.

Key words: Sheikh Safi al-Din, Safavids, Shi'ism, Seyyeds (descendants of the Holy Prophet), Imam Musa Kazim (A.S).

 

 

The Economic Conditions of the Iraqi Shiah during the Life of Imam Sadiq (A.S) and Imam Baqir (A.S)

Mohammad Reza Jabbari,* Seyyed Mohammad Ehsani**

Abstract

Economy is so important in human life that some schools regard it as an infrastructural aspect of society. Although Islam does not accept this, it assigns primary importance to economy, because it can have great influence on the improvement or disorder of the other aspects of human life. The present paper tries to clarify the economic conditions of the Shiah in Iraq, using a historical and analytical approach based on works of history, narrations and rijāl (biography). First, it reviews the economic conditions of Iraq in the early centuries, and then explains the economic conditions of the Shiʿah. The research findings show that the main sources of the wealth in Iraq were primarily agriculture, trade and then industry. The Shiʿah worked mainly in trade and a small portion worked in agriculture. Some of them worked in industry.

Key words: Imam Baqir (A.S), Imam Sadiq (A.S), The Shiʿah, Iraq, economy, agriculture, trade, industry.

 

 

  A Critical Analysis of Ibn Taymiyyah's Views about the Caliphs' Commandership of Expeditions

Mohsen Alviri,* Seyyed Ali Husseinpoor**

Abstract

Ibn Taymiyyah, whose views and works are considered as the basic source of Wahhabism, claims that the first two Caliphs were appointed as commanders of several expeditions but Imam Ali (the Commander of the Faithful–A.S) commanded only one expedition. Of course, a study of the Sunni resources proves that the expeditions attributed to the first caliph, Abu Bakr, are in fact different names for a single expedition. Furthermore, the researchers have doubts about his commandership of that expedition and so they reject this claim. As for the idea of only expedition led by the second Caliph, 'Omar, it is open to dispute and the questions about this idea remained unanswered. Sunni resources attribute the commandership of no expedition to the third caliph, 'Othman, while they have recorded many expeditions led by Imam Ali. Therefore, Ibn Taymiyyah's claim clearly contradicts the Sunni resources and has no historical grounds. The present paper provides an overview of the Sunni resources and then evaluates the Ibn Taymiyyah's claim.

Key words: expedition, Imam Ali (the Commander of the Faithful–A.S), Abu Bakr, 'Omar, 'Othman, Ibn Taymiyyah.


· Associate Professor of the History of Islam. Al-Zahra University

·· MA of the History of Islam, Al- Zahra University

··· MA of Iranology, the sub-course of History, Shahid Beheshti University

Received: 2010/4/28 - Accepted: 2010/7/21 masoom8227@yahoo.com

* Associate Professor of History Department, Isfahan University

** MA in the History of Islam zahrasoleimany@yahoo.com

Received: 2011/2/14 - Accepted: 2010/5/3

* Assistant Professor and Faculty Member of Department of Islamic Sciences, Isfahan Medical Sciences University

** MA student of the History of Shiite, the center of professional trainings, Isfahan Seminary

Received: 2011/5/24 - Accepted: 2011/7/23 amir.hm60@yahoo.com

* Assistant Professor of History Department, Payam – E – Noor University

Received: 2011/4/27 - Accepted: 2011/7/1 mshoormeij9@yahoo.com

* MA in Iranology asgharhei@gmail.com

Received: 2011/6/9 - Accepted: 2011/7/23

* Associate Professor of History Department, IKI.

** Graduate of Seminary and MA in the History of Shiite. sayedehsani@gmail.com

Received: 2011/5/21 - Accepted: 2011/8/16

* Assistant Professor of Baqir al-'Uloom University

** Graduate of Seminary and MA Graduate of IKI.

Received: 2011/4/16 - Accepted: 2011/7/21 sahosseinpur@yahoo.com


In the Name of Allah

Tārikh dar Āyene-ye Pazhuhesh Vol.7, No.4

A Quarterly And Scholarly Journal of Historical Researches Winter 2011

 

 

Table of Contents

A Critical Analysis of Ibn Taymiyyah's Views about the Caliphs' Commandership of Expeditions / Mohsen Alviri, Seyyed Ali Husseinpoor

The Economic Conditions of the Iraqi Shiah during the Life of Imam Sadiq (A.S) and Imam Baqir (A.S) / Mohammad Reza Jabbari, Seyyed Mohammad Ehsani

Sheikh Safi al-Din Ardabili's School of Thought / Asghar Heidari

An Analysis of the Process of Britain's Gaining Control over the Persian Gulf (From Mid-Safavid to the End of the First Half of the Qajar Dynasty: 1030 - 1264 'AH'/1620 – 1847'AD') / Mohammad Shoormij

Ibn Fahad al-Hilli: a Sufi or Gnostic Jurist / Ali Gholami Dahaghi, Amir Hasn Mozaffarizad

The Role of Abrahamic Prophets in Bringing Civilization; Unrest and Solutions (A Case Study: the Prophet Moses) / Asqar Montazar al- Qa'im, Zahra Soleimani

An Investigation into the Religious, Social, and Political Life of Dhemmi (Free Non- Muslims Subject to Live in a Muslim Country) Christians (During the reign of first Caliphs and Imam Ali) / Ali Mohammad valavi, Maryam Yadullahpoor, Ma'soomeh Yadullahpoor

 

 

Concessionary: Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute

Manager:Dr. Muhammad Reza Jabbari

Editor in chief: Mahdi Pishvai

Translation of Abstracts:Language Department of IKI.

 

 

:Editorial Board

ª Dr. Sadiq Ayinevand:Professor,Instructor TrainingUniversity

ª Dr. Muhsen Alviri: Assistant Professor, Imam Sadiq Universit

ª Hujjat al ـ Islam Mahdi Pishvae:Research Manager, History Department,IKI

ª Dr. Muhammad Reza Jabbari:Associate Professor, IKI

ª Hujjat al ـ Islam Ya'qub Ja'fari: Professor & Researcher working on the Quranic Sciences and the history of Islam, IKI

ª Dr. Muhsen Ranjbar:Assistant Professor, IKI

ª Hujjat al ـ islam Javad Soleimani: Associate Professor, Isfahan University

ª Dr. Sayyed Asghar Mahmudabadi: Faculty Member, IKI

ª. Dr. Asghar Muntazir al ـ Qaem: Associate Professor, IsfahanUniversity

ª Dr. Hamed Muntazwri Mugaddam:Assistant Professor, IKI

ª Dr. Ali Muhammad Valavi: Associate Professor, Al ـ Zahra University

ª Hujjat al ـ Islam Muhammad Hadi Yusefi Gharavi: Professor & Researcher working on the history of Islam and Shiism

-Hujjat al- Islam Mohammad Dashti: Resercher Working on the history of Islam and Iran

-Hujjat al - Islam: Reda Ramezdan Nargesi: Faculty Member, IKI

-Hujjat al - Islam: Ali Reda Shalbaf: Resercher Working on the history of Islam

-Nematollah Safari Froshani: Assistant Professor, Jame'a al-Mustafa al-Alamiyah

-Hujjat al - Islam GolamAli Azizikia: Assistant Professor, IKI.

-Hujjat al - Islam Ali Gholami Dehaqi: Assistant Professore' Isfahan Medicine University

-Seyyd Ziya-al-din Mir Mohammadi: Faculty Member, Research Center for Islamic culture and thought.

 

 

Address: IKI

Jomhori Eslami Blvd, Amin Blvd., Qum, Iran

PO Box: 37185- 4333
Tel: +98- 251- 2113479

Fax: +98- 251- 2934483

 mail: Tarikh@Qabas.net ـ E