Abstracts

The Reflection of the Conditions of Dhemmi Christians
in Islamic Resources (from the Early days of Islam until the Umayyad Period)

Maryam Yadollahpoor*, Ma'sommeh Yadollahpoor**, Ali Mohammad walawi***

Abstract

After the advent of Islam, the Christians could, according to the Holy Quran, verse 29 of Chapter 9 (the Repentance), keep on following their religion and live among Muslims provided that they paid tributes. Without making a critical study of the views of those historians who wrote about Dhemmis, especially Christian Dhemmis, the knowledge of the theoretical and practical lifestyle of the holy Prophet and the caliphs after him will be of no avail. On the other hand, it seems that following the expansion in the conquests in the Christian-populated regions and the increase in the number of Dhemmis in the Islamic society, the legal issues about Dhemmis were given more attention.

The present paper investigates the condition of Christians as reflected in Islamic resources and so such resources like general and regional history books, books on biographies and battles in Islam, fiqhi resources, books on conquests and kharaj(tributes), literary books, books about kings' conducts etiquette and geographical resources, have been separately studied. These studies show that contradictory accounts of the religious, social, and economic conditions of Dhemmi Christians are included in historical and fiqhi resources.

Key words: Islamic sources, Christians, Dhemmi Christians, the holy Prophet (May the blessing and peace of Allah be upon him and his progeny), the first caliphs, Umayyad caliphs.

 

 

The End of Portuguese Occupation and Its Role in the Florescence of the Trade in Bandar 'Abbas during the Safavid Period

Zeynab Naseri Liravi*, Hamid Hajiyanpoor**

Abstract

As marine waterways the straits always play important role in the economy of countries. Selecting Jaroon Island as their new capital and calling it Hormuz in the memory of their homeland, the kings of Hormuz had fall control over the trade of this region. All historians mention the prosperous trade between Hormuz Island and India. When the Portuguese Admiral, Albokerk, occupied the Island, its trade came under the control of the Portuguese; but being backed be the English, Shah'Abbas the Great, managed to defeat the Portuguese and drive them out of the Island. After the fall of Hormuz, the Gambron Port had an active role in developing economic relations. The present paper tries to answer the following questions: what role did the Island and strait trade of Hormuz have in the marine trade of the Persian Gulf region? What economic effects did the occupation of Hormuz have on this region? And, how did the growth of the trade in Bandar 'Abbas take form?

Key words: Hormuz strait, Hormuz Island, the kings of Hormuz, the Persian Gulf, Bandar 'Abbas, Safavid

 

 

A Review of the Performance of the Commemoration of the Martyrdom of Shiite Imams during the Rule of Nassir al-Din Shah in Travelogue Books

Hamid Sadeqi*, Morteza Dehqan Nezhad**

Abstract

After the passage of many historical stages, the ritual of commemorating the martyrdom of Shiite Imams took in the Safavid period form and fully developed in the Qajar period. The great efforts made by Qajar kings to perform religious rites had great effect on the development of this ritual so that its quantitative and qualitative development reached its climax in this period. The attention devoted by Nassir al-Din Shah to the performance of this kind of religious ritual was greater than devoted by any other king. The present paper investigates how performing this religious ritual is reflected in travelogue books of this period. Having examined the historical record of the course of development of this form of ritual prior and during the reign of Qajar kings, this paper tries to study the views and attitudes of foreigners who were in Nassir al-Din Shah’s court towards the performance of this ritual, which are reflected in the works they have left.

Key words: the commemoration of the martyrdom of Shiite Imams, Qajar, Nassir al-Din Shah, travelogue books.

 

 

The Role of the f Mozaffars in Islamic Civilization

Tahmineh Ra'iis al-Sadat*, Jawad 'Abbasi**, Hussein Moradinasab***

Abstract

Civilization and culture have always been the most important and determinant factors in Iran's political life. This is evident even during the time when such tribes as Mongols who were known for their unfamiliarity with Islamic religion and civilization had invaded Iran and destroyed everything and they were relentless even to the libraries and scientific centers which they set on fire. The scientists and men of culture of that time strove to have these centers repaired. In fact, Iran experienced socio-political developments during the period between the rule of the Ilkhanids and Teymur’s taking over in 736 -782 'AH', i.e. between the time of the death of Ilkhanid Sultan Abu Said and Teymur's first attack on Iran, which led to the formation of new states, some of which lasted less than a century. The present paper tries to shed light on one of these states of that period and find the role of the Mozaffars in the Islamic civilization. The research is based on a library-survey method.

 

 

A Glance at the Idea of Sheikh
Safi al-Din Ardabili’s Hashimi Ancestry

Asqar Heidari*, Nacir Baqiri Bidhandi**

Abstract

Whether or not Sheikh Safi-al-Din Ardabili, Safavid kings' great grandfather, is a descendent of the holy Prophet is of great importance for having a clear idea about the Safavid government. Is Sheikh Safi al-Din among the descendants of the holy Prophet? Is his children and grandchildren’ claim that they are descendants of the holy Prophet true, especially when we consider such factors like it was the time when Ismail the 1st. became a king of Iran, a war raged between Iran and two Sunni powers (Ottoman empire in the west and Uzbek State in the east) and the repeated questioning of the idea of Safavids' Hashimi ancestry by the heads of these powers? Or, is it a political tactic to gain the support of Iranian Shiite against the attacks of these two Sunni States? Based on a scientific-historical research and historiographical records and findings, the present paper tries to address the above question.

Key words: Sheikh Safi al-Din, Imam Musa Kazim (peace be upon him), the Safavids, Hashimi ancestry, Shah Ismail.

 

 

An investigation into Quhestan's
Conditions in the Third and Forth Centuries ('AH')

Ali Ja'fari*, Farshid Ja'fari**, Ali Akbar Kajbaf***

Abstract

In the historical geography of Iran, Quhestan has a distinct identity in relation with great Khorasan. This region was of great importance during the third and forth centuries ('AH') with the increase of some symmetric governments like Tahirids, Saffarids, Samanids, and Ghaznavids and it was ruled by them successively. Among the characteristics of Quhestan which attracted anti-'Abbasid movements were its special geographical situation (being between Sistan and Khorasan), the presence of social groups (ayaran) chivalrous bandits, fighters for the faith, etc) and different religious groups (Muslims, Jews, Christians, etc) in the region.

Using a descriptive –analytical method and library resources the present paper investigates the historical geography of Quhestan and its sociopolitical and religious condition at the time of these symmetric governments,.

Key words: Quhestan, Tahirids, Saffarids, Samanids, Qaznavids, Simjoorids, socio-cultural groups.

 

 

The Divergent Views
of Iranian Governments on Christianity

Hassan Aminifar*, Mohammad Dashti**

Abstract

As a universal religion, Christianity sought from the beginning spread throughout the world. To this end, missionaries were sent to different part of the world to propagate Christianity. It is precisely clear that foreign countries had different reactions and attitudes towards the presence of the missionaries. Before and after Islam, Iranian statesmen adopted different and fluctuating stances on this subject. However, we can conclude from the presence of the Christian minority in Iran in all periods that the followers of Christianity have always devoted their efforts to propagating their religion even in the severest conditions due to, generally speaking, the tolerance shown by Iranian statesmen. Furthermore, after Islam, Christians, welfare promoted and they enjoyed a higher latitude and social status compared with the pre-Islam period, because Islam has granted definite and sustainable rights and rules to them.

Key words: Christianity, propagation, Iranian governments, view.


*. MA in the history of Islam, Al-Zahra University.

**. MA in Iranology, History Department, Shahid Beheshti University. masoom8227@yahoo.com

***. Associate professor Al-Zahra University. Received: 2011/9/5 -Accepted: 2012/1/16

*. MA student of the history of Iran in Islamic Period, Shiraz University.

z.naseri89@yahoo.com

**. Assistant professor of History Department, Shiraz University.

Received:2011/9/6 -Accepted: 2011/12/31

* . MA student of the History of Islam, Isfahan University Hamidsadeghi68@yahoo.com

** . Associate professor of History Department, Isfahan University

Received:2011/11/21 -Accepted: 2012/1/28

*. MA student of the history of Iran in the Islamic period ta_rais@yahoo.com

**. Assistant professor of the History Department, Dr. Shari'ati College of literature and human sciences, Firdausi University.

***. Assistant professor of History department, the Research Center of Seminary and University. Received:2011/9/11 -Accepted: 2012/1/23

* . MA in Iranology, Shahid Beheshti University. asgharhei@gmail.com

** . Assistant professor Al-Mustafa International University.

Received: 2011/8/21 -Accepted: 2012/1/17

* . PhD student of the history of Iran in the Islamic era, Isfahan University.

dajivand@gmail.com

** . MA in of the history of Iran in the Islamic era, Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz.

*** . Assistant professor of History Department, Isfahan University.

Received: 2011/8/3 -Accepted: 2012/1/10

* . MA in Comparative Religions and Gnosis aminifar114@yahoo.com

** . Faculty member of Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute

Received:2011/7/11 -Accepted: 2012/1/10


Table of Contents

The Divergent Views of Iranian Governments on Christianity / Hassan Aminifar, Mohammad Dashti

An investigation into Quhestan's Conditions in the Third and Forth Centuries ('AH') / Ali Ja'fari, Farshid Ja'fari, Ali Akbar Kajbaf

A Glance at the Idea of Sheikh Safi al-Din Ardabili’s Hashimi Ancestry / Asqar Heidari, Nassir Baqiri Bidhandi

The Role of the f Mozaffars in Islamic Civilization / Tahmineh Ra'iis al-Sadat, Jawad 'Abbasi, Hussein Moradinasab

A Review of the Performance of the Commemoration of the Martyrdom of Shiite Imams during the Rule of Nassir al-Din Shah in Travelogue Books / Hamid Sadeqi, Morteza Dehqan Nezhad

The End of Portuguese Occupation and Its Role in the Florescence of the Trade in Bandar 'Abbas during the Safavid Period / Zeynab Naseri Liravi, Hamid Hajiyanpoor

The Reflection of the Conditions of Dhemmi Christians in Islamic Resources (from the Early days of Islam until the Umayyad Period) ./ Maryam Yadollahpoor, Ma'sommeh Yadollahpoor, Ali Mohammad walawi

In the Name of Allah

Tārikh dar Āyene-ye Pazhuhesh Vol.8, No.2

A Quarterly And Scholarly Journal of Historical Researches Summer 2011

Concessionary: Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute

Manager: Dr. Muhammad Reza Jabbari

Editor in chief: Mahdi Pishvai

Translation of Abstracts: Language Department of IKI.

Editorial Board:

ª Dr. Sadiq Ayinevand: Professor,Instructor TrainingUniversity

ª Dr. Muhsen Alviri: Assistant Professor, Imam Sadiq Universit

ª Hujjat al ـ Islam Mahdi Pishvae: Research Manager, History Department,IKI

ª Dr. Muhammad Reza Jabbari: Associate Professor, IKI

ª Hujjat al ـ Islam Ya'qub Ja'fari: Professor & Researcher working on the Quranic Sciences and the history of Islam, IKI

ª Dr. Muhsen Ranjbar:Assistant Professor, IKI

ª Hujjat al ـ islam Javad Soleimani: Faculty Member, IKI

ª Dr. Sayyed Asghar Mahmudabadi: Associate Professor, Isfahan University

ª. Dr. Asghar Muntazir al ـ Qaem: Associate Professor, IsfahanUniversity

ª Dr. Hamed Muntazwri Mugaddam: Assistant Professor, IKI

ª Dr. Ali Muhammad Valavi: Associate Professor, Al ـ Zahra University

ª Hujjat al ـ Islam Muhammad Hadi Yusefi Gharavi: Professor & Researcher working on the history of Islam and Shiism

-Mansor Dadash Nezhad:Assistant Professor, Hawzeh & University Research Center

-Hujjat al- Islam Mohammad Dashti: Resercher Working on the history of Islam and Iran

-Hujjat al - Islam: Reda Ramezdan Nargesi: Faculty Member, IKI

-Hujjat al - Islam Ali Gholami Dehaqi: Assistant Professore' Isfahan Medicine University

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