An Investigation into the Allegation that Ibn Qotabiyyeh Dinevary is a Shiʻah
'Ezzatollah Moulaeiniya*, Niyaz Ali Asadi**
One of the most famous and prominent learned figures of the third century ('AH') was Ibn Qotabiyyeh Dinevary, the author of tens of books on different Islamic disciplines including literature, hadith(tradition), historiography. The rich variety of his works indicates his wide and extensive knowledge. His works are considered among the most important sources of history of Islam due to his scientific personality and antique works. A Sunni Pakistani writer assumes in his book "Mizan Al-Kotob" that Ibn Qotabiyyeh and many other Sunni learned figures are Shiʻah. Using a documentary-analytical approach, the present paper comments on and refuses his claim and argument.
Key words: Ibn Qotabiyyeh, Ibn Qotabiyyeh’s faith, Imamate and Wal-(Imamate and politics), Mizan Al-Kotob.

Caucasian Religious Scholars' Two-Century Resistance against Blasphemy, Atheism and Dictatorship

'Adil Moulaii*
Sometimes, a nation witnesses a series of events in the course of shaping its destiny about which wonderful and painful stories are related. These stories teach the later generations’ valuable lessons and bring them grief. Great Islamic Iran has witnessed many bitter and sad events during its history, one of which is the separation of some important parts from this ancient and civilization-creating land. More painfully, these separations were ascribed not only to the domination of an aggressive enemy but also to the treason of internal agents who serve the enemies.
Using a documentary approach and historical analysis, the present paper elaborates on the separation of an important part from the great Islamic Iran.
Key words:  Caucasus, religious scholars, resistance, two centuries.

A Glance at Sasanid Ardshir's Guidelines in Fakhri's Historiography

Muhsen Morsalpoor*, Hussein Shirmohammadi**, Marziyeh Sharifi***
The original version of Ardshir's of guidelines, book which is more voluminous than the one available, was special interest to Sasanid kings and, after translating it into Arabic, to other Muslim rulers. This book, known as “A’hd Ardshir", was very famous in the early centuries of Islam. Even at that time no trace of the complete version of this book was found. Most books of guidelines and books of ministry decrees which were written later on during the Islamic civilization belonged to the genre of didactic literature of Sasanid period. The books about governments are magnificent examples of didactic literature.
Fakhri's historiography is one of the books which was designed as book of guidelines and recommendations for correct governance and administration. Its first chapter includes guidelines and the other chapters are about general history. However, the very first chapter which is concerned with the principles of governance and administration adds to the magnificence of the book. Using a library method and descriptive – analytical approach, the present paper focuses on the position which Ardshir's period has in Islamic history and points out to the similarities between “ A’hd Ardshir”, which is attributed to Ardshir Babakan, and Fakhri's historiography which was written in 6-7 centuries ('AH (.
Key words: ancient Iran, A’hd Ardshir, Fakhri's historiography, Ibn Taqtaqi.

The Aims of Preventing Slave Trade in Persian Gulf by the British

Salman Qasemiyan*
Persian Gulf and the neighboring regions have been of great importance throughout history. The attention of supper in the world powers has for long been directed to its military, political, strategic and commercial position. Superpowers have always tried to strengthen their position in this region, especially during colonialism period, and used different strategies to achieve this end. Imperialistic England's used the strategy of preventing slave trade in the Persian Gulf during the 19th century because this strategy was necessary for safeguarding England's interests in the region. Finally, the English government managed to control the sea trade in the Persian Gulf pretending that such action was humanitarian.
The present paper investigates the status of the slaves in Iranian Islamic culture of the coastal Persian Gulf mainly included the documents belonging to this period and in the English sources to make explicit the importance of this social class in the culture of the region. Furthermore, it tries through study of the main differences between in the western slavery culture and high position of slaves in the culture of the Persian Gulf to delve into the covert objective of the British to revoke slave trade in the Persian Gulf.
Key words: the Persian Gulf, Britain, the 19th century, preventing of slave trade.

The Status of Gifts in the Financial Resources of the Twelve Infallible Imams (peace be upon them)

Ne'matollah Safari Forooshani*, Ma'soomeh Akhlaqi**
Shiite Imams have always been the Shiʻah’s object of respect for their bring Imams and because of the respectful position they have among the Muslims in that they are the Holy Prophet's progeny. Although most people think that Imams' income comes only from religious levies and Muslims' public treasury, Imams have other financial resources, such as the gifts they receive from their friends and sincere followers.
To express their deep affection to the Imams, many Shiʻah and Sunni devotees bring them presents, wills and vows. Since receiving gifts was not prohibited by government, Imams would generally accept them. These sources of income were of great importance, especially during the period that preceded the time of Imam Jawad (peace be upon him), during which paying khums(the fifth) was not common.
Also, governments occasionally offered rewards to Imams in addition to the salaries which they received from Muslims' public treasury. Imams accepted these gifts and used them to fulfill their needs and Shias' needs.
Key words: gifts, income sources of, Imams (peace be upon them).

Pilgrimage to Mecca in Qajar Period (in the Travelogues of the Personages of This Period)

Alireza AliSoufi* , AliAkbar Zavr**
Using a descriptive-analytical approach, the present paper investigates the hajj travelogues of the personages in Qajar period and expounds the way of performing hajj rituals by Iranians in that period. The main question of the research is how Iranians used to perform hajj in that period and what factors influenced their hajj rituals. The research findings show that the conditions of hajj and, generally speaking, performing these rituals and visiting holy shrines by Iranians were greatly influenced by the deep ideological and historical differences between Shiite and Sunni schools of thought. Furthermore, this geographical region was under the control of the Ottoman Empire, therefore, the relations between the Iranian government and Ottoman government and the sociopolitical conditions of that time had a decisive role in this regard. In addition, the environmental and geographical conditions, such as long distance, fierce heat, waterlessness and drought and contagious diseases were influential, as well.
Key words: hajj rituals, the personages of Qajar period, hajj travelogues, routes of pilgrimage to Mecca.


An Inquiry into the Holy Shrines in Egypt and Syria whose Sacredness Is Associated with a Dream or Miracle
Ahmad Khamehyar*
For a long time, there have been holy shrines whose sacredness associated with a dream and miracle in different parts of Islamic countries. The names of a considerable number of these holy shrines in Egypt and Syria are mentioned in historical sources. Using an analytical approach and documentary survey and referring to the accounts in historical sources, the present paper reviews and examines the list of these holy shrines in Islamic country of Egypt.
Key words: Islamic holy shrines, dream and vision, Egypt, Syria, Aleppo.