Shi’a Scholars’ Role
in Supporting Iranian National Product, Work and Capital


Mahdi Abutalebi / Assistant professor of IKI                                abotaleby@gmail.com

Received: 2014/05/10 - Accepted: 2014/09/29



Islamic Republic of Iran has been subjected to several attacks from hegemony system due to its resistance against this system. Economic sanctions and threats are among these attacks. Accordingly, the Supreme Leader proposed resistive economy as the best strategy to confront them. In his view, a good modus operand is to support Iranian national product, work and capital. Since our country was always subjected to such threats and sanctions in the past, the present paper seeks to answer the following question: what were Shi’a scholars’ modus operands and activities to support Iranian national product, work and capital in our historical experience? To answer this question, Shi’a scholars’ functions and sayings in Qajar period, which was the period of West’s economic attack on Iran, were studied in historical texts using the method of “qualitative content analysis”. The results show that Shi’a scholars have had a great role in this respect through issuing declarations to sanction foreign goods and promote domestic ones, encouraging and supporting the establishment of domestic economic companies and practical commitment to use domestic goods, and contentment in life.

Key words: Shi’a scholars, national product, capital, Iranian, goods, foreign, domestic, sanction.


The Jobs and Occupations of Infallible Imams’ Companions and Hadith Narrators to the End of Minor Occultation


 Majid Aflakian / MA of Shi’im History, IKI                                majidaflakiyan@yahoo.com

Mahdi Pishvaii / Manager of research department, IKI              

Received: 2014/04/09 - Accepted: 2014/09/29



Infallible Imams’ recommendation on occupation and prohibition of idleness and unemployment is one of the important and influential points in Imamiyyah Shi’as life during Imams’ presence. Shi’as were so eager to have an occupation and earn Halal (permitted) sustenance that some of them were known by their occupation. Occupation is a necessity of man’s life and Shi’as are no exception. Conducting a sufficient induction and a comprehensive review, the present paper seeks to find out the occupations of Infallible Imams’ companions, economic atmosphere of Imams’ period and Shi’as’ economic status in that period, though it is difficult to find out the occupations of all Imams’ companions due to lack of resources. According to the induction, Imams’ companions and friends had various occupations, that is, they were active in economic domain. On the other hand, they conveyed Infallible Imams’ sciences and knowledge along with their common jobs, some of them had memorized thousands of hadiths and some others had reached the stage of independent reasoning and jurisprudence.         

An Investigation of the Extremist Character of Abo – al-khatab and the Shi'a Imams (A) Position against him and his Followers


Yadollah Hajizadeh / Ph.D, History                                                       hajizadeh30@yahoo.com

Received: 2014/02/20 - Accepted: 2014/07/06



An investigation of the extremists' beliefs in the era of Shi'a Imams (A) and the ways Imams confronted with them is of paramount importance. Familiarity with Imams' attitude towards the extremists offers a good model for confrontation with them. As one of the main extremists in Imams' era, Abo – al-khatab voiced his extremist ideas and both in his own time and after his death had a significant effect on hyperbole movement. Questions that, are raised in this regard are what kind of extremist ideas did Abo –al-khatab put forward, what effects did he have on the hyperbole movement after him, and how did the Imams react to this extremist character and his followers? In addition to Imam Sadiq' who seriously opposed him, disgraced him, avoided him, cursed him, forbad his company judged him as an unbeliever, the other Shia Imams, too, had a similar reaction in order to prevent his destructive influences.

Key words:   Imams, Imam Sadiq, Abo –al-khatab, oration, hyperbole, faith.

History and the Sequence
of Events which Ended in Presence Zahra'(A) Martyrdom


Sayeed Ali Hossein Poor / PhD student of history of Twelver Shi'ism IKI                              sahosseinpur@yahoo.com

Mohammad Reza Jabbari / Associate professor, IKI

Received: 2014/04/21 - Accepted: 2014/09/10



With the piteous demise of Prophet (pbuh), some other tragic events happened to His Holy Household. The gathering of some of Meccan emigrants and the helpers of Prophet in Saqifa was the origin of deviance in the Caliphate path. But it was not ended there, and its consequences manifested themselves as raiding the house of the most supreme lady in the world, injuring and finally martyring her. In the short interval between Saqifa' aggregation and Fatima's (pbuh) martyrdom, some events took place which were directly or in directly related to her martyrdom. Up to now several researches have been carried out about Saqifa' event and its consequences. But there has been no significant research about the history and march of events which led to her holiness Fatima's (pbuh) (Sedighe Tahere) martyrdom.  Considering the fact that the historical reports have not dealt with the exact date of the mentioned events either, this paper seeks to depict a clear and realistic picture in this regard, by investigating the available historical and narrational evidence.

Key words: God's messenger, Ali (A), Fatima (pbuh), caliphs, usurpation, Fadak, Osameh. 


An Introduction and Review
of the Book of ''Tazkera-al Khavas'' Written by Sebt Ibn-e-Jozi

Mohsen Ranjbar / Assistant Professor, IKI                                                    Ranjbar@qabas.net

Received: 2014/03/01 - Accepted: 2014/07/06



The present research introduces and criticizes the book ''Tazkera-al Khavas'', written by one of the scholars and historians of the seventh century, called Shams Aldin Yusof Ibn Qeazveghli, known as Sebt Ibn-Juzi.  After reviewing the extraction, character and religion of the writer and coming to know the book and its sources, content analysis of the book has been performed based on four pivots: first, recognition of reports congruent with Shi'a beliefs; second, un confirmed reports incongruent with the Shi'a beliefs; third, reports with no reference or only a passing reference in other sources. Fourth, responding to some Sunni scholars of Hadith and historians who criticized and weakened some traditions on the glorious deeds and virtues of Imam's (A) and scholars of Hadith. One of the main aims of this research is to investigate and answer two important questions: first why did the book's writer, who is a Sunni scholar and thinker, write a book on the glorious deeds eulogies and virtues of Shi'a Imams despite fidelity to Sunni religion, and why did he admit and acknowledge some of the shi'a doctrines. And still refrained from following the twelvers' religion?

Key words: Tazkera-al Khavas,  Sebt Ibn-Juzi, glorious deeds, Imams, history, Holy Household(A).

Women in Khwarazmian Period


@ Zohreh Me’mariani / MA of women studies                                       z.memaryan@yahoo.com

Mohammad Dashti / Assistant professor, IKI

Received: 2014/05/18 - Accepted: 2014/10/23



The present paper seeks to study women’s status, presence and role in different domains of society in Khwarazmian period (628-691 Hijra), which has not been investigated comprehensively yet. The results show that women had a more or less active presence in political, economic, social, artistic and literary domains in this period. In political domain, royal women had an active role, but other women had an influential role in other domains. However, abnormal behaviors and trifling women in salacious activities, especially by those in power, were common in this period, which greatly hurt society’s health and government’s efficiency.

Key words: women, Khwarazmian, role, political, military, economic.