Allameh Tabatabai's Historical Methodology
in Al Mizan Commentary


Mohammad Hassan Ahmadi \ Assistant Professor of Tehran University, Pardis Farabi                      

Received: 2014/04/20 - Accepted: 2014/08/26                                                           ahmadi_mh@ut.ac.ir



History has been accessed by Allameh Tabatabai in his commentary, and his accepting the idea of distortion of the Old Testament and the New Testament didn't prevent him from referring to the Bible.  Using historical consecutive and citing the historical topics from the Old Testament and the New Testament in his commentary in order to confirm the interpretative findings, compare between the different reports or criticize and reject them is the usual method of the late  Allameh.  Investigating the historical approach of Al Mizan's writer in two spheres of historical reports in the form of single narrations and historical consecutives of the two spheres is completely independent. Allameh Tabatabai's using consecutive in interpretation, his approach to encounter historical reports (single narrations) and the criticism leveled to the texts of historical reports are dealt with in three distinct parts of this paper. It is evident in Allameh Tabatabai's historical approach that he managed to bring out the value and position of history in his commentary and orient the dominant approach to interpretation (i.e. evading history) towards moderation.  

Key words: Allameh Tabatabai, Almizan Commentary, Historical methodology, history, consecutive, single individual narration, Israelites, the Holy Book.

A Critical Review of the Literature and Research Works on Akhund Khorasani's Political Thoughts


Ali Reza Javadzadeh \ Faculty member of IKI                                            Javadi4@qabas.net

Received: 2014/05/20 - Accepted: 2014/08/31



In our investigation of the life and political thoughts of Akhund Khorasani we can refer to three sources: 1. Akhund's works on politics; 2. The accounts written about Akhund by his contemporaries; 3. The analysis and research works on Akhund's life and political thoughts. There are two main opinions about the analysis and research works on Akhund's political thoughts. Some writers who consider people's consent as the basis of government legitimacy, rely on some documents and reports and present analysis of Akhund's political positions during the constitution movement and seek to associate his thoughts with those of the western democracy and dissociate them from the political thoughts of other shia jurists. Contrarily, a different and yet objective opinion is offered which indicates that Akhund, like other jurists, agrees that no one in the time of the major occultation has a legal right to govern except jurists, and that Akhund, in the eye of the proponents of constitutionalism, represents a political model based on the fixed political idea about the general guardianship of jurists longitudinally.

Key words: political thought, legitimacy of government, guardianship of jurist, constitution movement, Akhund.

The Philosophy of History in Allameh Tabatabai's
View with Emphasis on ''Al Mizan Commentary''


Yahya Abdulahi \ PhD student of Shia study, University of religions          yahyaabdolahi@gmail.com

Received: 2014/04/23 - Accepted: 2014/08/26



The theoretical philosophy of history deals with the direction of movement of history and the road map of its movement. An investigation into the nature of the course of history from a religious view can contribute to a proper recognition of our position on the course of history. Allameh Tabatabai history considers as a course which moves from unity to plurality and from plurality to unity. People try to benefit from one another and in this way they can establish close relations with one another to build a primary society. Since benefiting from one another is associated with self-interests, a state of chaos will reign. The only external factor which can contribute to rectifying this chaotic situation is prophecy. By upholding heavenly law, holy prophets have brought about to society unity, evolution and perfection to achieve real prosperity. Therefore, divine prophets represent the main factor of the movement of history.

Key words: philosophy of history, Allameh Tabatabai, Almizan Commentary benefit, perfection, society, prophets.

A Review of the Number of the States in Sham Religion
in Relation to the the Number of Muslims’
Victories against Crusaders from 490 to 569 (‘AH’)


Mahdi Mohammadi Ghanateghestani / PhD student of history of Islam, Shiraz University                

Received: 2014/04/08 – Accepted: 2014/08/11                                                Mahdi_550bc@yahoo.com



The multiplicity of the Islamic states in Sham region was behind the weakness of Muslim forces at the onset of crusaders’ attack. This why they could not resist crusaders’ early attacks. This political dispersion was accompanied by a series of conflicts between Muslim states, and as a result, the small states declined and were totally defeated by their rivals over time. Afterwards, Atabakan Zangi dynasty was established in Mosul in 521 (‘AH’) and so the ground was prepared for restoring unity in the region and standing against crusaders.

With the decrease in the number of Muslim states and political unity in the region, there was increase in the number of Muslims’ victories against crusaders. In fact, we can conclude that there is a significant relationship between the number of states in Sham region and Muslims’ victories against crusaders. That  is, the more the number of these states, the less the number of Muslims victories, and conversely, the less their number, the more their victories.

The present paper was conducted on the basis of cliometrics, in which statistical data are analyzed over a period, and the other factors influencing Muslims’ defeat or victory in their struggle against crusaders has not considered here.

Key words: Crusader war, Sham region, local governments, cliometrics, Muslims' victories.

An Exposition of the Historical Aspects of “Shi’ah” Concepts


Hamed Montazeri Moghaddam / Assistant professor of IKI                                montazeri@qabas.net

Received: 2014/03/17 - Accepted: 2014/07/21



The word “Shi’ah”, which is widely known to the followers of the school of Holy Prophet’s household, has been used to convey various meanings throughout the history of Islam, but then it became a specific term. Based on a historical method, the present paper describes and analyzes the usages of the term “Shi’ah” and delves into its concepts. The research findings show that the use of the compound noun “ Shi’ah of Ali” is affirmed by the Holy Prophet’s hadiths and approved and glorified by the infallible Imams (peace be upon them). Since it was used more frequently than any other compound noun for Shiah, this word was distinguished and used as a substitute for this compound noun. In addition to the doctrinal connotation of the term “Shi’ah”, it carried some general meanings in some historical periods, but as time went by, it has become a specific doctrinal term. Given this meaning, “Shi’ah” refers to all the followers of Imam Ali and his descendents, the obedience of whom is based on the belief that these Infalliable people were appointed as Imams (successors to the Holy Prophet). On the other hand, the term “Motashayye” is applied to the person who merely  declares his/her love to the infallible Imams (peace be upon them).

Key words: Shi’ah, concepts of Shi’ah, Ottomans, Shiite school of thought, the origin of Shi'ism, Shi’ah sects.

The Effect of Structuralism on the First
and Second Generations of the Historiographers of “Annales” School


Yasaman Yari / PhD of history of Islam, Tehran University                         yari_yasaman@yahoo.com

Received: 2014/04/28 - Accepted: 2014/09/07



The present paper seeks to investigate the effect of structuralism on the first and second generations of the historiographers of “Annales” School. To this end, it begins the discussion with a fundamental question about the nature of the effect of structuralism on the historiography of Annales School. This type of historiography was first developed by Marc Bloch and Lucien Febvre and then it was brought to a climax by Ferdnand Braudel, when the world’s scientific atmosphere was greatly under the influence of structuralism. This school of thought exerted influence on many branches of the human sciences such as sociology, linguistics, anthropology, ethnology, psychology etc. Finally, it encroached on historiography and exerted permanent effects on this sphere. This led to the development of total history. The approach towards history changed, the bias towards political history was eliminated and history became more and more concerned with common people or daily life. History was closely interrelated with geography. Now the society, and not individual, is viewed as the starting point in historical studies. Finally, other disciplines embedded in history. Sociology, economics, linguistics, sociology, climatology, ethnology and the like mingled with history, and historians referred to these disciplines in order to fully understand history. Therefore, we can conclude that the interrelation between structuralism and history represents the threshold of a new era which has different features.

Key words: structuralism, Annales' school, Bloch, Febvre, Braudel, historiography, historians.