Abstracts

The Aesthetic Sense of Names in the Household of Prophet’s Lifestyle

Hussein Husseiniyan  Moghadam / Assistant Professor of Seminary and University Research Center

Received: 2014/11/27 - Accepted: 2015/02/22                                            moghadam@rihu.ac.ir

Abstract

In every culture, names have a symbolic and etymological meaning and are indicative of the different values of society and name giver’s emotions, needs, insight and characters. Relying on the source of names, they have a key role in providing individuals and society with education, and in deciding whether or not they sound respectable, and, generally speaking, they play a major role in man’s personal and social life. The cultural viewpoints serves as a descriptive backing of names and a basis for choosing and applying them, whether or not the name giver is aware of the meaning of the name which he/she chooses for his/her child. Some adopt cultural views which are in favour of strange-sounding names and consider this act as a naturalistic nature of human and tend to imitate it accurately. Therefore, beauty assumes different meanings according to different insights and characters and it should be defined within its specific cultural context. Using a historical method and based on the available sources and written documents, this paper investigates the idea of beauty in light of the lifestyle of the prophet’s household concerning how they named their children. Three focal points are considered in this discussion: the relationship with God, the relationship with society and the relationship with nature. The approach to spirituality and social and personal vitality is used. Thus, making a statistical contrast between these three points, the paper expounds the way of choosing names, and criticizing the theory of ‘naturalism’’, it shows the great natural beauty which names have.

Key words: culture, name, style, life, the Prophet’s household, aesthetics.


The Authenticity of the Accounts about the Places Associated with the Miracles of Imam Ali (pbuh) in Iraq

Ahmad Khameyar / PhD Student in History and civilization of Islamic nations in the Theology College, Tehran University                                                                                                                         a_khamehyar@yahoo.com

Received: 2014/12/23 - Accepted: 2015/03/06

Abstract

Some historical sources and narration sources of the Shi’a attribute many miracles to Imam Ali (pbuh). The belief in the occurrence of such miracles led to building shrines in the places associated with them to which this paper refers as the places associated with the Miracle of Imam Ali. In Iraq, there are a number of shrines, the most important of which are, ‘’Mashhad-al-Shams’’ in Hilleh, ‘’Jomjomeh Shrine’’ in Babil, Buratha Mosque in Bagdad, and ‘’Qattarah’’ of Imam Ali near Karbala. Introducing a brief account of each of these four places, and analyzing and contrasting the narrated traditions in ancient Shiite narration sources on the Miracles of Imam Ali (pbuh), the paper tries to investigate the degree of the authenticity of these places and see whether or not these narrations apply to them. The results of this investigation show that there are many contradictions and differences concerning the place in which these miracles occurred, and which contributed to setting up these shrines, so that the geographical location of these places can hardly correspond to the existing narrations.

Key words: Imam Ali, miracle, shrine, Iraq, narrations, Shi’ah.


An Analysis of the Degree
of Shalamghani’s Deviations in Sunni and Shi’ah Sources

Mohammad Taqi Zakeri / Ph.D. Studentof History of Ah-Albeyt, Al mostafa university.

taghi.zakeri@yahoo.com

Received: 2014/11/08 - Accepted: 2015/03/16

Abstract

Shalamghani is one of the figures who is categorized as a Shi’a but both the Shia and the Sunni think that he has strayed off the right path. He was an academic figure and he was followed by number of political officials in his time and they had firm friendship with him. Enjoying such a status, as the chairman of the agency organization and then head of the Shiah. He was able to spread misguided beliefs among his followers. Although in principle, no one denies that he promulgated misguided beliefs among his followers is no existing source mentions that he adopts these different types of beliefs. The investigation of the information which is obtained from different sources and taking into account the religious inclination of their authors make clear that ascribing this huge amount of misguided beliefs to Shalamghani cannot be true, and leastwise, ascribing such beliefs like claiming to be god, explicitness in sexual affairs and acts of worship which are mainly reflected in non-Shi’a sources, is not consistent with other historical accounts about his real life.

Key words: Shalamghani, extremists, Shi’ah, explicitness, divinity, representatives, deputies, Azaqeriyah.


A review of the Political Behavior of Talha and Zubayr Based on the Correspondence during the Caliphate of Imam Ali (PBUH)

Ali Reza Gholampoor / Faculty Member of Theology Group, Islamic Azad University, Abadan Branch and PhD. In Teaching theology and Islamic Civilization of University of Islamic Theology of Qom gholampoor47@yahoo.com

Received: 2014/11/21 - Accepted: 2015/02/04

Abstract

The period of the caliphate of Imam Ali (35 to 41 Hegira) witnessed mutual exchange of letters between the opposing sides, as a result of the complicated political situation which the death of Uthman had created. Examining these letters with the aim of recognizing the political behavior of the important figures in that period of time contributes to turning a new page of the research in the field of Islamic history. Identifying the key points, including the stylistic devices used by the authors and the arguments, claims, criticisms, etc. which characterize these letters, on one hand and comparing the letter contents with the political behavior of their authors, on the other hand, can contribute to the achievement of the objectives of this study. Using a descriptive-comparative method, this research seeks through a case study to show to what extent the behaviors of Talha and Zubayr conform with their claims. The results of this study show that there is a fundamental contradiction between their claims and their actions. The claims contained in their letters such as claiming allegiance by force, Imam Ali's involvement in the murder of Uthman and Imam Ali's lacking qualification of being a caliph, which represent their main political slogans, do not correspond with the reports and historical documentary evidence.

Key words: Talha, Zubayr, letter, allegiance, Uthman, repentance.


The School of the Companions of the Prophet's Works on Hadith; the Goals, Advantages and Disadvantages

Mohammad Reza Hedayat Panah / assistant professor of Hawzah and Daneshgah University

Received: 2014/12/03 - Accepted: 2015/03/03

Abstract

For centuries "the study of the companions' works on hadith ", underwent many ups and downs, and the most important issues of this study are ignored under two main headings; "structural schools" and "content schools". In the course of development of the study of the companions' works on hadith, the structural school developed to become two schools; "Hadith school" and "biography writing school". Due to the political, social, and scientific issues and needs, the companions' works on hadith takes precedence over the structure of biography writing.

Therefore, a lot of the previous the companions' works on hadith had the form of "books concerned with the chains of transmission of hadith," and this is why these books are not considered among the companions' works on hadith. The objectives, advantages and disadvantages of this structure has led to the beginning of a new stage in the study of the companions' works on hadith which is structurally called "the companions' works on hadith and biography writing". Presenting a clear account of the school of the companions' works on hadith, this article refers to some of the objectives, advantages and disadvantages of this structure.

Key words: the companions' works on hadith, structural school, content, Hadith, biography.


Dar al-Siyadah; the Historical Background of Its Establishment; Its Status and Function in the Time of Mongol Ilkhanate

Mahdi Yaghubi / MA student of history of shiism, IKI.

Sayed Mahmood Samani / history professor and faculty member of Haj and Ziyarat research center

Hamed Montazeri Moghaddam / assistant professor of IKI.

Received: 2014/07/26 - Accepted: 2014/12/30

Abstract

Undoubtedly, the respect shown to the prophet’s descendants traces its history back to the first days of the advent of Islam. The establishment of "Diwan al-Nagabah" in the middle of the third century in the second Abbasid era with the aim of attending to Sadats’ affairs, shows the social role of this influential social stratum in social and political developments, which was forgotten for some decades in the period following the mongol invasion in the second decade of the seventh century. After the second wave of mongol invasions of Iran and Islamic world, and, then, the establishment of the Mongol Ilkhanid government in Iran, as a result of which some Mongol rulers like Ghazankhan, embraced Islam, the social status of Sadats improved. As illegal aliens, these rulers established a cultural foundation called "Dar al-Siyadah" in an attempt to make their government legitimate.

Undoubtedly, the close relations which Shiite and Sunnis scholars had with the Ilkhanid  had a strong effect in this regard. In spite of the importance of this issue, no in-depth and relatively comprehensive study has been made about it. This paper seeks to extract some reports from the existing sources and classify them in order to, answer the following questions: What are the factors behind establishing Dar al-Siyadah? How was the geographic distribution of Dar al-Siyadah? And what function did it have? The paper concludes that the Mongols established Dar al-Siyadah in order to give support to and legitimize their government. The present study focuses on the period between 694 and 736 (H).

Key words: Dar al-Siyadah, Sadat, Ghazankhan, Uljaytu, Abu Saeed, Islam, Shi’ism, Isfahan, Tabriz.