A Reflection on Abu shamah’ Historiography in al-Rawdhatayn and Zeil ala al-Routhatayn with an Emphasis on the Doctrinal and Political Attitudes of the historian

Ahmad Baadkopeh Hazaveh / PhD student of history and civilization of Islamic nations, Tehran University hazaveh@ut.ac.ir

Ma'soomeh Abangah / MA in the history of Islam, Islamic schools University      

Received: 2015/7/6 - Accepted: 2016/3/18                                              M_Abangah1359@yahoo.com


The expansionism of the Ayyubid government from Egypt to the Levant and Arabian Peninsula and the war against the Crusaders on the one hand, and fighting the government and the thoughts of the Ismailis in Egypt and Syria on the other hand, created a distinctive political , military and religious atmosphere in the territory of this state. Inductive study of the writings of this period suggests the direct impact of this atmosphere on the historiography of Egypt and Syria. Affected by these conditions ,Abu shamah is one of the prominent historians who  has embarked on writing about history. His two historical books, ie "al-Rawdhatayn" and Zeil ala al-Routhatayn, are the major sources of the history of Ayyoubids and Crusades. Studying these two works as examples of the historiography of Ayyubids’ era, this paper seeks to show the impact of these developments on the form and content of these works, and on the historical, political and religious attitudes of this historian. The results of this research show that Abu shamas’ historiography is an important step towards extending this period of dynastic writings and the political and military themes have a clear prevalence in their content. In his works, he introduced Ayyubid dynasty as a legitimate and ideal government and tried to honor them and suppress their political or religious rivals, i.e. the Fatimids.

Keywords: Abu-shamah, historiography of Egypt and the Levant, Ayyubids era, al-Routhatayn fi Akhbar al Daulatayn, “al-Zeil ala al-Routhatayn”.

A Review of Traditions about
Mohsen Ibn Ali (P.B.U.H) in Shia and Sunni Sources

Mohammad Reza Jabbari / Associate Professor of History Department, IKI jabbari@qabas.net

Mohammad Javad Yavari Sartakhti / Phd Student of history of Shiite, IKI                                      javadyavari@yahoo.com

Received: 2015/9/1 - Accepted: 2015/12/31


Traditions in Shia and Sunni narrative and historical sources about children of Imam Ali and Lady Zahra have regarded Mohassan as one of their children. However, there are controversies on his birth and death or martyrdom in common  sources. Many of these sources regard him as Imam Ali and Lady Zahra's child and merely mention his death during childhood. Others have either basically mentioned the traditions on his martyrdom or have distorted and omitted these traditions. On the other hand, a majority of Shia sources have not only mentioned the name of Mohassan, but also have asserted his being aborted due to the attack to Lady Zahra's house. Few others have mentioned his death during childhood without referring to its cause, which is not contrary to his abortion and martyrdom. Since some contemporary researchers have doubts about the validity and implication of Shia traditions when reporting these traditions, the present paper reviews and validates relevant traditions in Shia and Sunni sources.

Key words: Mohassan Ibn Ali, Lady Fatimah, Imam Ali (The Commander of the faithful), Mohassan's abortion, Mohassan's death, Mohassan in common people's traditions, Mohassan in Shia traditions.        

The Components of “Resistive Economy”
in the Lifestyle and Propagation of the Recent Religious Scholars

Mahdi Heidari Katayooncheh / P.hd Student of Management of Media Management, Broadcasting research Center                                                                                                                        Heidari.redaneh@gmail.com

Sayyed Ali Mohammadi / MA of communication sciences, Broadcasting research Center

Received: 2015/8/8 - Accepted: 2016/1/21                                                       Seyyedali48@yahoo.com


Proposing the theory of “resistive economy’ by the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran as an endogenous and dynamic economy based on the national and religious exigencies  is an essential action taken toward the renewal of the domestic economy and Iran’s exit from recession and dependence on foreign powers. Given that our country has frequently been the target of foreign invasions and  has encountered their economic, political and cultural interference, the lifestyle of Shiite scholars in the last two centuries can guide us on how to identify the strategies and course of actions for accomplishing the purposes of our leader in the field of Resistive Economy. Using the "Data Based" method, this paper tries to analyze the economic thoughts and lifestyle of the religious leaders of the Qajar and early Pahlavi era .It seeks to provide an operational model for a better elucidation of the concept of resistive economy based on the country’s Islamic history and civilization by extracting the basic elements of their political and propagative thoughts and behavior .. 

Keywords: resistive economy, religious scholars, the "Data Based" method.

Typology of the Prophetic Era from the Battle of Badr
to that of Tabuk  from the Qur’anic Perspective

Mohammad Hussein Daneshkia / Assistant professor, University of Islamic Sciences           

Received: 2015/10/14 - Accepted: 2016/2/7                                                         mkia1988@gmail.com


Knowing the people  of an era and their intellectual and political attitudes and inclinations is taken to be a necessity of knowing the nature of events and making accurate analysis of the events. In the meantime, the Qur’an repeatedly has classified the people  at the time when the Qur’an was being revealed. Having  access to the classification and its relevant criteria in the period between the battle of Badr and the battle of Tabuk is the aim of this study. The main question is that “from the Qur’anic viewpoint, in what groups have the people mentioned in the Prophetic age at that period been placed?” It seems that by the spread of Islam from the battle of Badr to that of Tabuk, people have been classified in three groups of Muslims, unbelievers and the hypocrites, and what has changed was the classification of sub-groups. In this study the "historical-analytical and interpretive" method has been used.

Keywords: Badr, Uhud, Tabuk, typology of people ,the Qur'an

Two views and Two Approaches
A methodological Rereading of Two Books:
"Ba'z Mathalib al- Navasib (Some Vices of Anti-Shias" by Abd al-Jalil RÁzi, and "MathÁlib al- NavÁÒib" (Vices of Anti-Shi‘as) By Ibn Shahr AshÙb

Mansoor Dadashnejad / Assistant professor of University and Seminary Research Center


Mohammad Kazem Alijani / MA in the of history of Shiite, University and Seminary Research Center

Received: 2015/8/31 - Accepted: 2016/2/27                                              mkalijani@rihu.ac.ir


Writing on vices is a kind of historical- polemic writing which puts emphasis on disadvantages, faults and defects, and discusses the invectives of rival and opposing individuals and groups profoundly and wholly. The literature of writing on vices, which started from the 2nd  century due to the escalation of national and religious conflicts, increasingly developed and more than forty books entitled "MathÁlib (vices)" were written until the 6th  century. The two books on vices written in the 6th  century are "Ba'z MathÁlib Al- NavÁÒib (Some vices of Anti-Shi‘as" by Abd al-Jalil RÁzi (d. circa 585 'AH'), and "MathÁlib al- NavÁÒib" (Vices of Anti-Shi‘as) By Ibn Shahr Ashoob (d. 588 'AH'). The present paper compares these two books to find their poins of similarities and differences. ‘Abd al-Jalil has adopted an approach based on the proximity among denominations, the Principles and theology and tried to create a kind of entente between Shi‘as and Sunnis through his proximity policy. By contrast, Ibn Shahr Ashoob has adopted a traditionalist and narrative approach, far from proximity policy. Given these views, each of these authors has chosen his own particular method to write his book. Abd al-Jalil's method is based on persuasion, apology, and analysis, with a respectful literature. Ibn Shahr Ashoob's method, however, is based on silencing, offence, and citation, with a provocative literature.

Keywords: writing on vices, Abdul Jalil Qazvini, Ibn Shahr Ashoob, approaches, traditionalist, principles-based.  

Prophet Muhammad's Spiritual Retreat and Multiple-Night Worship and Its Motivations, with Emphasis on Criticisms of Montgomery Watt's Views

'Abdul Hadi Feghhizadeh / Professor of Theology, Tehran University          faghhizad@ut.ac.it

Mojtaba Mohammadi / PhD student, Tehran University                     mmohammadia@ut.ac.ir

Received: 2015/7/19 - Accepted: 2016/1/15


Historical reports indicate that Prophet Mohammad (Peace be upon him and his progeny) was  a frequent  visitor to the HirÁ cave retreating and worshiping God before his mission. Some doubts have been cast on Holy Prophet's motivations for his retreat in the cave by some orientalists, most importantly Montgomery Watt , which are contrary to Islamic principles, including this claim that he was a frequent visitor to the cave because of the torrid weather of Mecca and that this was influenced  by the tradition of Jewish and Christian monks. Citing scientific arguments and documents, the present paper nullifies these views and dispels these doubts. Using a method based on "rational-historical analysis", literary, historical and geographical documents and considering the Holy Prophet's individual and social living conditions, it discusses the Holy Prophet's motivations for spiritual retreat and multiple-night worship.

Keywords: orientalists, William Montgomery Watt, motivations for spiritual retreat and multiple-night worship, Prophet Mohammad, Hira cave.