A Critique of the Perspective of Nineteenth Century Orientalists on the Social Function of the Clerics in the Period of Qajar

Shokrollah Khakrand / assistant professor at the department of history, University of Shiraz


Mehdi Dehghan Hesampur / MA student of the history of Islamic Iran, Shiraz University

Received: 2016/05/04 - Accepted: 2016/08/31                                       md6998@gmail.com


The westerners’ approach to the study of the various aspects of the intellectual, social, cultural and political life of other countries in the nineteenth century is referred to as "the orientalist tradition”. Orientalists who include different groups such as political deputies, travellers and researchers have studied and described the different sections of eastern societies from their own perspective. The Iranian Shiite clerics are among the social stratum which the nineteenth century orientalists have studied. The inconsistency between the thoughts of each of these two groups, i.e. the clerics who seek to preserve the tradition of the Iranian society and orientalists who espouse modernity and propagate it, has led to a confrontation between the two. The research results show that orientalists regard clerics as their ideological rivals and enemies and as an impenetrable barrier to modernity. Holding a generalized and historic view within the framework of orientalist theory, they try to convey a false impression about the attributes and functions of this group. However, one should not ignore the results of the studies of this group to gain a relative knowledge of the clerics’ position, role, weaknesses, and their relations with the public in the Qajari era. The present research seeks to present the image that orientalists have of the clerics. A "descriptive- analytical" method is used in this study and a “library-based" method is used for collecting the data.

Key words: orientalism, clerics, Qajar, tradition, modernism.

A Reflection on the Pioneer Work
of Ibrahim ibn Hashim in the Dissemination of Kufis’ Traditions in Qom

Qasim Khanjani / Assistant professor at the department of history, Hawzah and University

Research Institute                                                              khanjani1342@yahoo.com

Muhammad Reza Hedayatpanah / associate professor at the department of history, Hawzah and University Research Institute                                                                                             rihu.ac.ir @Hedayatp

Received: 2016/06/15 - Accepted: 2016/09/18


In the second and third centuries, Kufa was one of the most important Shia scientific centers that attracted those who were interested in the various fields of knowledge, especially the science of hadith. Many prophetic hadiths were narrated, quoted and written in kufa, and the hadiths of the household of the Prophet were taught and learned in it and from Kufa, which had a great wealth of traditions, traditions were spread to other Shiite centers. Because of the importance of the transmission of Kufi’s traditions to other places and its impact on the spread of Shiism, some traditionalists whom hadith sources regard as the first to transmit hadiths, have narrated Kufi traditions. For example, Imamiyah Shiite regard “Ibrahim ibn Hashim” as the first to spread Kufi traditions in Qom but, a careful study of the sources reveals that he cannot be regarded as the first to spread the kufi hadiths in Qom and that some other people had spread Kufi traditions in Qom before Ibrahim .Investigating the historical and traditional evidence, this paper reflects on this famous Shiite view about Ibrahim ibn Hashim.

Key words: Ibrahim ibn  Hashim, Kufa, Qom, Ahwaz, Hussein ibn Sa’eed, Ahmad ibn Mohammad ibn Issa, Mohammad ibn Khalid Barqi.

A Critical Review of Sheikh Saduq’s Accounts of the Ashura Event

Mohsen Ranjbar / assistant professor at the department of history, IKI       ranjbar@qabas.net

Received: 2016/04/17 - Accepted: 2016/09/08


Among the historians and traditionists’ accounts of the event of Ashura, the account of Sheikh Saduq is worth considering because the main part of his accounts of Maqtal are based on the traditions of the infallible Imams, especially Imam Sadiq (AS). After providing a short overview of the scientific life of Sheikh Saduq, the present study ​​reviews and comments on the chain of transmission and content of a long account ascribed to Imam Sadiq concerning Ashura event from beginning to end. Sheikh Saduq narrates this tradition in the thirtieth session of his book "Al- Amali" from Muhammad ibn Omar Baghdadi who quoted it from the book of Abu sa’eed Hasan ibn Osman Ibn Ziyad Tostari. The study of the chain of transmission of this tradition indicates that Shia scholars do not authorize Hasan ibn Osman Ibn Ziyad Tostari from whose book this tradition is quoted . In addition, Sunni authorities accuse him of hadith- forging and ascribing to himself the traditions related by others. However, an analysis of the content of this tradition reveals that this tradition contains some flaws and shortcomings, therefore, it is difficult to ascribe it to Imam Sadiq (AS).This paper also reviews and comments on some other traditions about this event mentioned in the above book.

Key words: Sheikh Saduq, Maqtal al-Hussein, Al- Amali, Imam Hussein, the Ashura uprising.

The Shiite Political and Cultural
Capacities for the Creation of a New Islamic Civilization

Hadi Shojaei / PhD student of political sciences, IKI                        shojaeehadi4@gmail.com

Received: 2016/05/28 - Accepted: 2016/08/20


By introducing civilization-building, motivating and goal-setting elements, leading cultures play a significant role in the creation of human civilizations. The leading Shiite culture, that prepared the ground for the victory of the Islamic Revolution, has great capacities for the creation of civilization. Using a descriptive- analytical approach based on a "documentary" method, the present paper seeks to answer this fundamental question: what capacity does Shiite political culture have for creating an Islamic civilization? The paper tries to make a scientific study of the practical role of these factors in the formation of powerful Shiite states in the early centuries of Islam. The results show that the political dimension of Shiite culture including such civilization- building elements like great mobilization power, wise leadership, rationality, Shariah-centeredness, along with the dynamism it gives to various layers in the light of such incentives like justice- seeking , realization of an ideal society within the framework of the culture of awaiting Imam Mahdi’s reappearance, and providing a new model of Islamic civilization can play an important role in the process of creating the civilization of Islamic society.

Key words: cultural and political capacities, Shiism, Islamic civilization.

The Convergence between Imamiyah Shia and Seljuqi Dynasty

Hossein Moradi Nasab / assistant professor, Hawzah and University Research Institute


Mohammad Amin Izanloo / MA in history and civilization, Tehran University

Received: 2016/05/07 - Accepted: 2016/09/18                                        aminizanloo47@gmail.com


With the fall of the Buyid rule (334-447 AH) and rise of the Seljuqis (429-590 AH), the caliph of Baghdad, Tugrul Seljuqi (455 AH) rose to power. The Sunnis’ old hidden grudges which they bore from the Buyid era and the competition and religious fanaticism of some of the figures of that era led to ​​conflicts between the different Islamic denominations, especially between the Shi’ah and Sunnis. The sectarian squabbles were so bitter that people refer to that era as “the sectarian and polemical era ". However, as the saying goes, “people follow kings’ religion”, accordingly, there were some interactions and a kind of convergence between the Imamiyah Shi’ah and Sunni rulers. The internal disputes among the Seljuqis, shortage of technical skills for maintaining power and the pressure placed on the Shi’ah caused the Shi’ah to follow the policy of indulgence and tolerance and play a central role in preserving and developing the Shiite school of thought to reduce the opponents’ pressure. The present paper studies and explains the type, goals and reasons behind the convergence between the Imamiyah Shi’ah and the Seljuqi rulers.

Key words: Imamiyah Shi’ah, Seljuqis, convergence.

The Influence of Muslims’ Sociocultural
History on Ibn Jubayr’s Travelogue

Mahdi Ya’qubi / MA Student of the history of Shiism, IKI          mahdiyaghoobi83@gmail.com

Mohammad Javad Yavari / PhD student of history of Twelver Shiism, IKI                                                           

Received: 2016/06/09 - Accepted: 2016/09/12                                            javadyavari@yahoo.com


Travelogues are considered among the important sources for studying the sociocultural conditions existing in the different historical periods. Ibn Jubayr’s travelogue is one of these important sources. In the second half of the sixth century AH, Ibn Jubayr, the Sunni scholar from Andalusia, traveled from the westernmost region of the Muslim world to the center of Islam to perform Hajj. This travel is considered as an important step in understanding the cultural and social situation of Muslims in the sixth century AH. On his way, he first went to Egypt and then to Hejaz. After Hajj, he visited Iraq and Syria. His visit to Sicily and describing the events that happened in it is among the oldest accounts of that region which was governed by European Christians. The present paper seeks to answer a number of important questions in this regard. Can we refer to Ibn Jubayr’s travelogue for understanding the social and cultural situation of the Muslims of that time? In what conditions were the Shi’ah and Muslims living in those Christian areas? To what extent were the accounts in Ibn Jubayr’s book influenced by his religious viewpoint? In Ibne Jubayr’s book which focuses on describing the events of Hajj, therefore, the social and cultural conditions of Muslims in general, and the Shi’ah in particular are reflected. The book also contains interesting, albeit sometimes prejudiced accounts, about the Shi’ah.

Key words: travelogue , Hajj, Ibn Jubayr, Muslims, Shia, cultural and social history.