A Study on the Prophetic Treaties; Relying on Two Principles of "Two-way Interactions" and "Non-Imposition of Religion"


Mahdieh Pakravan / PhD student in the History of Islam, Al-Zahra University


Zahra Salarian / MA in Philosophy and Islamic Theology, University of Qom.                       zahrasalarian.s@gmail.com

Yahya Sobaghchi / Assistant Professor of Islamic Studies Department, Sharif University of Technology                    

Received: 2016/10/04 - Accepted: 2070/02/28                                                  ysabbaghchi@gmail.com



The Arab community consisted of a large number of independent political and social groups living on the tribal system. According to the tribal life, the system of alliance was prevalent among them and was considered as one of the strengths of the tribes. In his universal invitation, the Prophet used the optimal and effective capacities of the community. The remaining writings of the Prophetic age indicate his strong interaction with various tribes. By investigating these contracts and the conditions for their realization, several criteria can be extracted. In this paper, two central principles have been addressed: These contracts were based on mutual interactions, and they were not made only with the Muslims. By focusing on these two features, the paper examines some contracts that require more attention. The result of this study shows that there were justice-based principles and non-imposition of religion in the trans-regional relations of the Prophet. It is worth mentioning that eventually a tribal-martial system was replaced by the society based on religious brotherhood and the Islamic Ummah was established.

Key words: Prophet's treaties, Prophet's contracts, Prophet’s political letters, peaceful coexistence, religion, medina, Arab tribes.



A Review and Analysis of Being
in Charge of Hajj in the 9th Year AH

Seyyed Mohammad Mehdi Hosseinpour / Ph.D. Student at the University of Religions and Denominations      mfz1378@yahoo.com

Seyyed Ali Hosseinpour / Ph.D. Student of Shiite History, IKI        Sahosseinpur@yahoo.com

Hamed Montazeri Moghaddam / Associate Professor at IKI                   Montazeri@qabas.net

Received: 2016/11/09 - Accepted: 2017/03/15



Possession of command in Hajj in the 9th century is one of the most important and controversial issues of Islamic history. Many Shiite and Sunni scholars believe that the Prophet (pbuh) put someone in charge of hajj in the 9th AH and personally assumed responsibility in Hijat al-Weda’ the next year. Some Shiites of Imam Ali (AS), and most of the Sunni, have introduced Abu Bakr as the one in charge of hajj in the 9th AH. This study has examined this issue in detail, and by carefully studying the existing views, it has proven that, contrary to the commonly-held view, in that year no was appointed by the Prophet (pbuh) to be in charge of Haji; he appointed first Abu Bakr and then Imam Ali (AS) to this task only to convey the verses of Surah al-Bīrāt. However, both groups have cited a number of arguments which, after investigation, all prove to be weak, and eventually serious flaws are found in the ideas of both of them. On the contrary, many of the authentic narrations and valid historical propositions explicitly prove the opposite.

Key words (s): announcement of al-Bīrāt verses, commander of the faithful Ali (a), Abu Bakr, Ibn e-Teymiya, Sunnis.



Examining the Role of the Skeptical Approach
of Patricia Crone in Formulating Her Views
in the Book Meccans Trade and the Rise of Islam

Seyyed Ahmad Reza Khezri / Professor of History and Islamic Civilization, University of Tehran                             

Ma’ede Bayram / MA in Islamic History, Islamic religions University                            maede.bayram@gmail.com


Received: 2016/10/02 - Accepted: 2017/02/03



Patricia Crone, Danish scholar of the 21st century, is one of the leaders of the skepticism movement in Western studies of the Prophet’s life. One of her most prominent works is " Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam." Using the descriptive-analytic method, this study seeks to investigate the role of Crone's skeptical approach in shaping her views and the strengths and weaknesses of this book. The research findings show that the views of Crone are formed solely based on her skeptical attitude towards Islamic sources. She considers Islamic sources on the early history of Islam as lacking in historical validity and regards that historical knowledge of this period is possible only through material evidence and non-Islamic historical texts. The methodology of Crone has been influenced by the origin of her philosophy of history, and postmodernism has had a great impact on her. Presenting a critique of Crone’s ideas and rejecting her reasons for the incredibility of Islamic resources, the paper explains the problem of relying solely on material evidence and non-Islamic texts and makes clear that they are only complementary to Islamic sources.

Key words: Patricia Crone, Meccan trade, Skepticism, Orientalism, Study of the Prophet’s life, Islamic sources



Ibn Khaldun and the Critique
of the Narrative Traditions in Early Historiography Case study:
The Narrative on the Fall of Barmakids in Historiography by the End of the Fourth Century

Hamid Sadeghi / Ph.D. Student of Islamic Iran’s history, Isfahan University


Ja’far Nouri / Assistant Professor of Iranian Studies , Ayatollah Haeri  University of Meybod

Received: 2016/10/23 - Accepted: 2017/03/09                                        Nouri.jafar21@yahoo.com



Ibn Khaldun's critique of the method, approach, and perspective about the historiography of Muslim historians transformed the criteria in this area of religious ​​education forever. What can be seen from the perspective of the present era is a new epistemological approach to the science of history. Mentioning a historical example, this research has tried to study and evaluate Ibn Khaldun's critique of these historians’ approach. The case study concerns the fall of Barmakids at the time of Haroon. The research question is about the reflection of their fall on historiography in the first four centuries. At first, Ibn Khaldun's critique is mentioned using the method and approach of the early historians, and then, by mentioning the historical case, the validity of this hypothesis is tested. There is no doubt that Ibn Khaldun was a great figure, who for the first time throughout history he initiated rational analysis and its criteria. However, it should be taken into account that some of his thoughts have been criticized. (History in the mirror of research, vol. 3, fall 1382, A Review of Ibn Khaldun's Works and Thoughts) therefore, his works should not be considered perfect and overstated. Moreover, the methods and criteria for historical analysis which are proposed by Ibn Khaldun in the "introduction", are not used or could not be used in his history book "Al-Ebar". This paper reflects the views of its authors.

Key words: Ibn-Khaldun, Methodology, early historiography, Fall of Barmakids.



An Analysis of and Response to the Most Important Doubts Regarding the Conflict between Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and Bani-Quraytha Jews

Azizullah Karimi Tabar/ Ph.D. of the Quran and Hadith Sciences, Osuloddin University Qom           


Mohammad Ali Raghebi / Assistant Professor of the Quran and Hadith, Qom University

Mehdi Akbarnejad / Associate Professor of the Quran and Hadith, Ilam University

Received: 2016/09/23 - Accepted: 2017/02/17                                        m.akbarnezhad@ilam.ac.ir



The present paper analyses the doubt regarding the massacre of Bani-Quraytha Jews by the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). It has been carried out by analyzing the historical and Quranic data in a "technical" way. Citing various evidence and reviewing different viewpoints, the paper proves that the war men of the above-mentioned tribe were executed because of their betrayal, hypocrisy, casting doubts, frequent violation of treaties, helping idolatrous enemies and trying to destroy the incipient Islamic system. Of course, the exaggerated statistics about the number of deaths are not accepted. This study explains the great crime of Bani-Quraytha, their dubious and false claims about being the victims of injustice, the Prophet’s (pbuh) violence and the innocence of his opponents. This way we can take away from the opponents the pretext for full scale propaganda invasion in this regard and provide a context for constructive interaction and more understanding and sympathy with the followers of other religions. Moreover, ancient historical narrations about the captives are not correct, including the narration which claims, based on the historical narratives, the captives were moved to the Levant. Understanding the truth in this regard requires thorough and in-depth research.

Key words: Bani-Quraytha, Jews, Prophet of Islam (PBUH), massacre




The Strategies and Solutions for Monitoring and Evaluating Imamites Educational System in the Age of Appearance

Mohammad Javad Yavari Sartakhti / Ph.D. in Shiite History, IKI  javadyavari@yahoo.com

Mohsen Ranjbar / Assistant Professor of History, IIKI                              Ranjbar@Qabas.net

Received: 2016/10/26 - Accepted: 2017/03/16



According to some traditions, in the age of appearance, the Ghulat and hadith fabricators, made up some traditions and tried to spread them as "Shiite beliefs". If such hadiths are accepted, then it may be concluded that some of the beliefs and behaviors of the Shi'ites are inspired by Ghulat. It is also assumed that the Shiites have had a passive and indifferent attitude in this regard. Now it is necessary to ask: given the eternality of religion and the leading role of Ahl al-Bait in safeguarding the teachings, what are the strategies and supervisory tactics of Imamites for achieving the educational goals and their ways of coping with the crisis of teachings’ vulnerability? In order to criticize the opposing theory and prove the process of supervisory strategies in the Imamietes educational system, the present research seeks to explain this subject and extract the historical and traditional evidence from library sources. Studying and analyzing the historical propositions and hadith texts and based on the principle of "the necessity of protecting the teachings of religion and transferring it to learners in order to achieve happiness in the world and the Hereafter", it is concluded that the Shiites, based on educational strategies, have devised effective strategies to overcome these crises and achieve their goals. Creation of content, teaching, guiding learners, supervising, and providing educational methods are among the main strategies and solutions that Shiites use when facing a crisis or a fabricated hadith and ensuring the correctness of the teachings.

Keywords: Ghulat, fabrication of hadith, educational strategies and solutions, Imamietes educational system, presentation of hadith.