قيمت مقاله الكترونيكي: 


A Historical Analysis of the Overthrow of Sadat Kiaee Government by the Safavids (with Emphasis on Theoretical Foundations)


Hassan Allah Yari / Assistant Professor, Department of History, University of Khalij-e- Fars

Received: 2017/01/01 - Accepted: 2017/06/30                                               hasanallahyari@gmail.com



The Sadat Kiaee, who succeeded to form a local and firmly-rooted state in Gilan about a century and a half before the advent of the Safavids, provided Isma'il Mirza, the next Shah Isma'il and, thus, played an important role in preventing the definite overthrow of the Safavids and restoring them to power in order to fulfill their political goal in the early years of the 10th century. Yet, Kiaee government was destined to be overthrown by the Safavids and ousted in the early 11th century. Using a historical- analytical method, this research tries to examine the course of this phenomenon, i.e. the suppression of Sadat Kiaee. The research results indicate that, despite the numerous indications, the Safavids could never control the Sadat Kiaee completely. With their background based on mystical path and Siyadat and their desire to form a state an based on an ideal Shah (kingdom), according to their local tradition, Kiaee rulers targeted the theoretical foundation of the Safavids and were thus brutally suppressed.


Key words: the Safavids, sadat, the overthrow of Kiaee Family, theoretical foundations.


A Critical Review of Hisham
Al-Kalbi's Narrations in Tabari's History


Zaynab Omidiyan / Assistant Professor of Shiite History, Hakim Sabzevari University

Received: 2017/04/10 - Accepted: 2017/09/03                                          zeinab.omidiyan@yahoo.com



The founders of Islamic historiography are the very narrators and Akhbaris (traditionalists) who lived in of the second and third centuries, an exhaustive list of whom has been drawn up by Ibn-e-Nadim. Hisham has a special status among them because his narrations cover an extended period of history from the Fall of Adam to the Abbasid period and there is no need to go into detail about it because it takes time. The present paper uses a descriptive-analytical method to examine the significance of and approach to Hisham’s narrations by referring to them in Tabari's history. Among the questions discussed by this study is in which cases Tabar replies on the factors behind Tabari's reliance on them, Hisham’s narrations, and the features of Hisham’s narrations, that is, his historiography that was a source of interest to Tabari. The present research shows that the vastness of Hisham al-Kalbi’s historical knowledge, along with his moderation, impartiality and objectivity have led Tabari to verify the authority of his narrations. Therefore, Tabari quotes extensively from Hisham in different periods.


Key words: Hisham al-Kalbi, Tabari's History, Ibn-e- Nadim, Tabari.

The Reasons behind the Buyids' Consent to the Retention of Bani-Abbas's

Muhammad Javedan / MA in Islamic Studies                                         javedanm@yahoo.com

Rahman Oshriye / Level 4 at the Seminary of Qom                                   oshryeh@quran.ac.ir

Received: 2016/03/02 - Accepted: 2017/08/01



After entering Baghdad (334 AH / 945 AD), the Buyids – for some reasons- allowed Bani Abbas to continue ruling despite their difference with the Abbasid caliph in beliefs and their discontent with the caliphate's possession of authority. Using a descriptive-analytical method and presenting historical documents, the present research seeks to study the causes for keeping the Abbasids in power by the Buyids, besides their domineering policy, the religious conditions and their claim to caliphate and the rivals who sought to hold the post of caliphate. Considering the belief of the majority of Muslims in the Abbasid caliphate and showing religious tolerance, the Buyids, who had a desire to rule, decided to maintain the continuity of Abbasid caliphate in order to prevent public disturbance. They intended to rise to power and to gradually spread their religious beliefs, get rid of their rivals under the caliphate umbrella and take advantage of the weakness of caliphis so that they could take over.


Key words: the Buyids, Deilamah, Abbasiyan, caliphate, keeping Bani Abbas in authority.

Assessing the Findings of Foreign Travel Writers on the Conditions of the Shiite Population in Iran in the Qajari Era
(Case Study: Ojen Obon and Madame Carla Serena)

Maryam Saeidian Jezzi / Assistant Professor, University of Isfahan     msaeedyan@ltr.ui.ac.ir

Parvin Haghi / MA Student of Shiite History, Isfahan University     parvinhaqqi@gmail.com

Received: 2017/02/02 - Accepted: 2017/06/07



Travel itineraries are the product of the observations and objective evaluations of their writers. They are considered among the important sources of understanding the identity and culture of a society during the different periods of history on the basis of non-Iranians' views and evaluation. The travel itineraries written by Europeans in recent centuries are of great importance in terms of their subject, interpretation, analysis, evaluation and comparison. Although the works of this group have not addressed the Shiite identity independently and thoroughly, they are worth considering and evaluating due to their being part of the oriental studies, careful consideration which this group gives to some Shiite beliefs and customs and the observations they make about ​​some issues and the special attention given to them by some contemporary orientalists and domestic writers. Among the issues which have been the spcial concern of this group are explaining the Shi'a's beliefs and ideas about religious doctrines and mentioning their leaders, the Iranian Shiite population's religious practices and rites, the special attention they give to the important sacred sites and the clergy, and assessment of their dogmas. This paper deals with the works of two European travelers (Madame Carla Serena and Eugene Obun), who visited Iran during the Qajar period. It concludes that these two travel writers often uses a purely narrative approach based on their incomplete observations of the rituals of Shi'ite population; they make mistakes in their attributing some practices to Shi’ism on the one hand, and they provide inaccurate description of some of the Shiah's beliefs on the other hand. A critical - historical method is used in this study, which is centered on Islamic sources and
the works of these two travel writers.


Key words: the Shiites of Iran, foreign travel writers, Qajar era, the Shiites of Iran in Qajar era, Qajar, Eugene Obon, Carla Serena.


A Critique of the Book "A Look at the History of Imamiyyah's Thought from Early Development to the Advent of the Safavids"

by Mehdi Faramanian and Mostafa Sadiqi


Gholamhassan Muharrami / Assistant Professor of Islamic Culture and Thought Institute     

Received: 2017/02/27 - Accepted: 2017/08/14                                                moharrami47@gmail.com



Despite its positive and praiseworthy points, the book "A Look at the History of Imamiyyah's thought from Early Development to the Advent of the "Safavids" has weaknesses which make it open to criticism. The present paper discusses some of these weaknesses including adopting a superficial and intellect-oriented attitude towards the history of Shiism along with a kind of prejudgment, making some unfounded and unsubstantiated claims, citing stange narratives which oppose the famous narratives and relying on the words and views of the opponents of the Shia which contradict the well- known Shiite theories. Another drawback relating to the content of the book is the doubts about the existance of Shiism in the early centuries, especially the first century AH. It is also claimed that the development of Shiism has a conventional origin, not a divine origin, and holding some beliefs by the followers of Ahl al –Bayt clear texual ordinance such as infallibility and dissociating from the enemies of Ahl al-bayt goes back to yhe first century.


Key words: Imamate, Shi'ah, Imamiyyah, Imamiyah thought, the history of Imamiyyah thought, nas (clear texual ordinance), Ismat (infallibility) , tabara, beda, rej’at.


The Hadith of "Fi'at Baghiyah" and Responding to Ibn Taymiyyah's Dubious Ideas to Defend Mu'awiya
(A Review of Historical and Hadith Sources)


Mohammad Nasiri / Assistant Professor of the Department of Islamic Education and Thought, Tehran University                                                                                                                                    Nasiri.m@ut.ac.ir

Seyyed Hassan Qazavi / Assistant Professor of Islamic Education and , Tehran University


Mostafa Ra’isi / Ph.D. Student of Shi'a Studies, University of Religions and Denominations

Received: 2017/05/10 - Accepted: 2017/09/13                                          nasimedalat1387@yahoo.com



One of the seemingly complex events in early Islam is the wars between Muslims themselves during the caliphate of Ali Ibn-e- Abitaleb, so that some of the great Companions of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH & HP) remained doubtful for a time about which one of the two warning groups is rightful. A few studies have been carried out concerning the causes, nature and consequences of these battles, but few comprehensive studies based on documentary sources have been made about these wars and the doubts raised in this respect. One of these important events is the battle of Siffin, where Ammar Yasser was martyred by Muawiya forces. It is reported in a hadith narrated by several authorities that the Prophet (pbuh) said: He (Ammar ibn Yasir) will be killed by Al-fi’at baghiya (insolent band). The very idea of Ammar's fighting alongside Imam Ali clearly indicates Imam Ali's rightful position, in general and falsehood of Mu'awiyah and his insolent forces, in particular. Raising doubts about the authenticity of this hadith, Ibn Taymiyyah express his overwhelming support to Mu'awiya, and thus it is very important to make semiotic analysis of his invalid reasons and justifications. The doubts he raises about the chain of transmission of the Hadith and claiming that its textual implication is weak, considering Mu'awiyah's conduct as Ijtihad for which he will be rewarded despite the mistake he made in ijtihad and so on are amongIbn Taymiyyah's dubious ideas, which this research seeks to examine critically, concentrating on Sunni historical sources and hadith books.


Key words: Ammar Yasser, Hadith Al-Fi'at Baghiyah, Ibn Taymiyyah  and defending Mu'awiyah, Imam Ali, Amro ibn al- As.