قيمت مقاله الكترونيكي: 

A Critical Analysis of the Article of "A Study on the Relationships between Motavakkel, the Abbasid Caliph, and the Alawites"

Mohiaddin Sultanifar / M.A. of Shiite History IKI                               soltanifar68@gmail.com

Muhammad Javad Yavari Sartakhti / Assistant Professor of Islamic History and Civilization, Baqir al-Ulum Uni

Received: 2017/05/28 - Accepted: 2017/12/10                                   javadyavari@yahoo.com



An article was published in the Journal of Islamic History Studies No. 17, by the name "A Study on the Relationships between Motavakkel, the Abbasid Caliph, and the Alawites." This article questioned and made doubts about some of the most famous historical facts about Mutawakkil such as, being a Nasibi, anti-Alawi, destructing and plowing up the grave of Imam Hussain (as), Nasibi's killing of Ibn-Sikit, insulting, ridiculing and animosity to Amir al-Mu’minn Ali (as) and so on. The hypothesis of the present study is that, the aforesaid article has fallen into wrong conclusion, due to many errors, especially in the scope of methodology, analysis, dealing with sources and historical reports, and unprofessional approach of the authors to the history of Islam. So, to present a scientific judgment, the aforementioned article was analyzed, and more precisely it proved that, Mutawakkil was a Nasibi, which has committed the aforementioned crimes. 

Keywords: Mutawakkil, Muntasir, Abbasids, Imam Hadi (as), Alawites, Nasibi, Ibn-sikit.

An In-Depth Analysis
of the Orientalists' Opinions about Hadrat Khadija’s Life

Arman Furouhi / Ph.D. Student of Islamic History Isfahan Uni Arman.Forouhi@yahoo.com

Muhammad Hassan Raznahan / Associate Professor of history Kharazmi Uni


Alireza Attari / M.A. of Shiite History Kharazmi Uni                     Alirezaattari71@gmail.com

Received: 2017/07/28 - Accepted: 2018/01/16



The life and character of the Prophet Muhammad (S) as the Prophet of Islam, has always been interested by the Orientalists. Hadrat Khadija (as), as the first wife and first Muslim woman in the Meccan era, in the Prophet’s family, had a noticeable role in the initial stage of the invitation of the Allah's Messenger. Accordingly, the various dimensions of Hadrat Khadija’s (as) life had a lot of manifestation in Orientalists’ works. The most Orientalists’ opinions have been analyzed around five topics, familiarity of Hadrat Khadija (as) with the Prophet (S), her marriage to the Prophet (S), the event of an appointment (Be'sat), her support for the Messenger of Allah (S) and the demise of Hadrat Khadija (as) and its consequences. Using a desk research and referring to the early historical sources, and considering the natural differences between the Islamic and western culture and the conditions and ruling spirit over the Orientalist studies, this paper analyzes the unconfirmed claims of the Orientalist in this respect, though, naturally, some views are verifiable and consistent with the early historical sources.

Keywords: Hadrat Khadija (as), Prophet Muhammad (S), Orientalists, Marriage, Be'sat, demise of Khadija (as).

Criticism and Analysis of the Physical Appearance of Imam Ali (p.b.u.h), The Commender of the Faithful, in Sunni Sources

Mahmoud Karimi / Associate professor Imam Sadiq University karimiimamoud@gmail.com

Seyyed Mohammad Reza Faqih Imani / Ph. D student of Imam Sadiq University

Received: 2017/09/04 - Accepted: 2018/02/15                                    mo.faghih67@gmail.com



In the works authored by Sunni outstanding scholars on the character of Imam Ali in particular, or that of the Companions of the Holy Prophet in general, certain chapters are devoted to his outward features. It is noteworthy that some Shiite scholars have also taken the qualities stated in these sources as granted, quoting them in their own books. Revisiting this issue and criticizing as well as analyzing the qualities mentioned in Sunni sources, the co- authors of this article have concluded that some of these features reflect Imam Ali´s real appearance corresponding to the reports of other Sunni sources and those of Shiite ones. According to these sources, the two qualities of “ Anza” and “Batin” attributed to Imam Ali by the holy Prophet, can be accepted through the explanation given by the Holy Prophet himself. However, some other qualities of Imam Ali (p.b.u.h) although apparently mentioned in praise of him, the real aim behind them has been tarnishing his image.

Keywords: physical appearance of Ali (p.b.u.h), Anza, Batin, thick bearded, protruded forehead, perfect qualities of Prophets and Imams     

Reinvestigation of the Two Historical Problems
on the Theory of the Government Seeking of Master of the Martyrs

Ramadan Muhammadi / Assistant Professor, Research Institute of Seminary and University Rmohammadi@rihu.ac.ir

Ibrahim Goodarzi / Ph.D. student of Islamic History Baqir al-Ulum Uni

Received: 2017/08/04 - Accepted: 2017/12/09                                    egoodarzi1192@chmail.ir



The decoding of the purposes of Master of Martyrs in the uprising of ‘Ashura has developed in the last 50 years, especially after the victory of the Islamic Revolution, so thatm many scholars have been investigated in the whatness and whyness of this great event. Investigating of the various Shi’ite theories about the uprising of Master of Martyrs show that, two theories of government seeking and martyrdom seeking are more common than other theories. The supporters of these two theories have criticized each other. One of the most important critical questions of the criticizers of the theory of government seeking is that, why Imam (as) did not return to Hejaz after the martyrdom of Muslim ibn Aqeel, and why did Imam (as) left Mecca to Kufa with a two-week delay? Reinvestigation of the two foregoing historical problems, and analysis of the responses of the author of Shahid Javid, which is the only given responses in the last fifty years, this paper proves the inadequacy of the theory of government seeking, and calls for the revision of this theory, and believes that, the falsehood of this theory has already been proven upon the arrival of the news of the martyrdom of Muslim ibn Aqeel to Imam (as).

Keywords: Master of Martyrs, Kufa, author of Shahid Javid, Tha'labieh, Zubaleh, Muslim ibn Aqeel, the theory of government seeking.

An Analysis and Evaluation of Historicizing and Historiography
in the Field of Seminary and Clergies

Abuzar Mazaheri / Assistant Professor IKI                                              mashrooteh@qabas.net

Received: 2017/05/16 - Accepted: 2017/10/24



Despite the fact that, the Shi'a clergies, throughout the history of Islamic Iran, have been the most influential and active flow in the various scientific and practical fields, they have a minor role in the field of historiography. The most important reason of this issue, firstly, is the lack of attention to the history and historiography by the seminary and clergies, and secondly, is the domination of the secular intellectual flow on the contemporary Iranian historiography, and denying and distorting the role of the seminary and clergies in historical events especially in the contemporary era. Ignoring the history and historiography by seminaries and the clergies, loses the material and historical information and gives the scope of the historiography of the seminary and clergies to the other streams; particularly the opponents. The historicizing and historiography problems on the issue of seminary and clergies can be studied in two major approaches, the problems that have a seminarial origin, and have emerged from the procedures and methods of the seminaries, and the problems that have a non-seminarial origin, ant it is evident in the western and enlightenment historicizing and historiography.

Keywords: historicizing, seminary and clergies, seminarial historiography, western and enlightenment historiography.

The Status of Negotiations with the Enemy in the Uprising of Imam Hussain (as); an Analysis of the Theory of Muhammad Soroush Mahallati

Hamed Montazeri Moghaddam / Associate Professor of the Department of History IKI

Received: 2017/11/24 - Accepted: 2018/03/16                                          Montazeri@qabas.net



Referring to the conversation between Imam Hussain (as) and Umar ibn Sa'ad in Karbala, Soroush Mahallati, in a speech titled, “The possibility or impossibility of negotiating with the enemy in the revolutionary politics of Imam Hussain (as)” seeks to prove that Imam Hussain (as) was looking for negotiations and agreement in Karbala (with Yazid) to prevent the war. The present article is a historical analysis of his opinion. Despite the advantages, such as separation of the dimensions of the problem, detailed discussion in the historical dimension and collecting the less well-known opinions from elders, this speech has important shortcomings in both method and content. These shortcomings, in terms of the method, include the unidirectional narration of history and unreliable trust on the opinions of elders, and in terms of content it includes, disregarding the motive of forgery and the process of disseminating of the attributed suggestions to Imam (as), incorrect translation of the important part of the cited report, neglecting the Yazid’s seeking allegiance, disregarding the foundations and purposes of the Imam's uprising and providing a vague image of it.

Keywords: Imam Hussain (as), Imam Hussain’s (as) uprising, negotiations with the enemy, peace with the enemy, Umar ibn Sa'ad, Yazid ibn Muawiyah.