Imam Husain (P.B.U.H.)'s Character in "Ithbat al-Wasiyya" Reports
Amir Ashtari / PhD. Student, the History IKI    amir223@chmail.ir
Mohsen Ranjbar / Associate Professor IKI        ranjbar@qabas.net
Received: 2017/12/27 - Accepted: 2018/07/12
The importance of validation of the related reports to the infallible Imams is totally obvious especially in the Shiite sources. Examining the validity of the related reports to "Imam Husain" (P.B.U.H.) in the Book "Ithbat al-Wasiyya" (attributed to Mas'udi), which has ignored the documents of most reports, including the section of Imam Husain (P.B.U.H.), is the purpose of this paper to find the same or similar reports in the other historical and the Collections of Tradition. Since validating the reports is not just about their documents, the content of the reports has also considered, though it is not the main purpose of the paper. This study shows that, although the reports of this section is stated without documents, the same or more similar ones are found in other historical and the Collections of Tradition. This book presents a supernatural and historical illustration of the character of Imam Husain (P.B.U.H.). This illustration has followed even in the bloody event of 'Ashura in 61 AH. It seems the author of this book has a keen interest in the contents of the reports, which led to ignoring the documents.
Keywords: Imam Husain (P.B.U.H.), Ithbat al-Wasiyya, abnormal events, occulted reports, historical reports.

Historical Comparison; Feasibility Study and Criteriology
Javad Soleimani Amiri / Associate Professor IKI    soleimani@qabas.net
Received: 2018/04/27 - Accepted: 2018/09/03
Comparative studies are one of the adopted methods of research in humanities, in which researchers find a deeper knowledge by comparing two phenomena or views with each other and examining the similarities and differences between them. Acquiring a deep undressing about their time, historians study the factors of the rise and fall of civilizations by comparing the civilizations with their own time. But, due to some difficulties, perhaps some scholars may avoid the comparative study of history, such as undue comparison, its impossibility or non-scientificness. After explaining the reasons for the possibility of historical adaptation, this paper has criticized two extremist and negligence perspectives on historical comparison, and has mentioned issues, such as identifying similarities and focusing on esoteric similarities, evaluating the ineffectiveness of distinctions in similarities and utilizing comprehensive formats as a criterion and scientific method for valid historical comparison.

Keywords: the concept of historical comparison, possibility of historical comparison, historical comparison method, proper and undue historical comparison.

The Reason of Absence of the Intellectual Flows in the Tobacco Protest
Abuzar Mazaheri / Assistant Professor IKI    mashrooteh@qabas.net
Received: 2018/01/20 - Accepted: 2018/08/16
The tobacco Protest can be considered as the first Iranian awakening movement. This movement took place in an age when Islamic Iran suffered from severe weakness and disorderly through tyranny and colonialism. Although the various social groups participated in this movement, the intellectual movement and those who studied in Europe played a negligible role, despite the reform discourse that has always been claimed. Studying the reason of this absence is the purpose of this paper. It seems that, their misunderstanding and inaccurate analysis of the condition of Iran during this period was the main reason of this absence. The misunderstanding of this movement from the three main involved parties of this movement (i.e. the people and their political culture; tyranny and Qajar monarchy, colonialism and its influence) has prevented them to play their role in this movement, which can be considered as "the mother of the contemporary movements of Iran". Actually, they could play an important role in this movement along with the other people, by relying on the people's awakening and taking benefit from the cultural-political capacities instead of humiliating the religious-political culture of people and regarding the beliefs as a superstition, by recognition of the nature of tyrannical government in Iran and holding a real reform view rather than an anti-tyranny view affected by the west, and also by distrusting the colonists and the foreign countries instead of trusting their honesty and being happy with their presence in Iran.
Keywords: Tobacco Protest, intellectual movement, colonialism, tyranny.

An Analysis of the Ignorance Time Culture about Women and Family in Iran Coincided with the Advent of Islam 

Seyyed hamed Neyazi / M.A. in Islamic History and Civilization Islamic Educational Uni.       seiyed_ha@yahoo.com  

Mohammad Reza Jabbari / Associate Professor IKI                                  jabbari@qabas.net

Received: 2018/04/14 - Accepted: 2018/10/04


The Ignorance Time culture was shadowing everywhere in the pre-Islamic period. Without mentioning any place, time, and folk, the Holy Quran has pointed to the components and characteristics of ignorance, but in order to clarify more for the primary audience of the Quran, the ignorant Arabs; it enumerates examples of the culture of ignorance in the Arabian Peninsula. In this regard, one should not limit ignorance just in the Arabian Peninsula. On the eve of the advent of Islam, Iran, as one of the significant and civilized geographic areas, was an example of the culture of ignorance. Analyzing the culture of the Ignorance Time in one of the important sectors of society, i.e. the women and family system in contemporary Iran with the advent of Islam is the purpose of this paper. The general topics under discussion include: the status of women in the view of Iranians coincided with the advent of Islam, the types of marriage, behavior with women and children, and analyzing the backgrounds and factors of this situation.


Keywords: the advent of Islam, Iran, ignorance, culture of ignorance, ignorance in Iran, woman and family in the Iran's Sassanid era.

Reviewing and Criticizing the Reports Related to the Oppositions against Imam Hasan (P.B.U.H.)' Peace Based on the Analysis of the Opposers' Attitudes and the Sources of the Objections
Mohammad Reza Hedayatpanah / Associate Professor History Department Research
Institute of Hawzeh and Uni.     rihu.ac.ir @Hedayatp
Roohullah Tohidiniya / PhD. Student of Islamic History Tehran Uni.     roholahtohidi@yahoo.com
Received: 2018/01/22 - Accepted: 2018/09/15
According to the sources, some Shiites were opposed Imam Hasan (P.B.U.H.) after his peace and addressed the Imam with offensive statements. Actually, carelessness of some researchers to the issues such as, the diversity of documents and sources, the diversity in the attitudes of the objections, inaccessibility to the correct versions of the statements, and uncertainty about the time and place of objections, provided the conditions for the opponents to reflect these traditions in their works. Describing the event in a firm and comprehensive form, this paper attempts to examine a claim that, the Shiite elders and the followers of Imam did not disobey Imam Hasan (P.B.U.H.) and they did not insult his holiness. Findings show that, given the roots of the objections in the Khawarijs' way of thinking and the distortions of the Umayyad supporters to demolish and weaken the Ahl al-Bayt (P.B.U.T.), the theory of the opposition of the companions of Imam Hasan (P.B.U.H.) with his holiness is incorrect and incomplete.  

Keywords: Imam Hasan (P.B.U.H.)'s peace, opposers to peace, Shiites, humiliator of the believers, Khawarij.

An In-depth Analysis of Madelung's View about the Political Leadership of Imam Ali (P.B.U.H.) in the Book "The Succession to Muhammad"
Mohammad Javad Yavari Sartakhti / Assistant Professor, Baqir al-Olum Uni.    javadyavari@yahoo.com
Morteza Alavi / M.A. in History of Islamic Civilization Islamic Maaref Uni.    alavi6188@gmail.com
Received: 2017/11/26 - Accepted: 2018/06/19
Wilferd Madelung the German orientalist has studied the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H.)'s successorship in his book "The Succession to Muhammad". Although his viewpoint is fairer and wiser than the other orientalists, he studied the character and the political and social behaviors of Amir al-Momenin Ali (P.B.U.H.) in the history from a non-religious viewpoint and through the Sunni and the other orientalists sources and methods, and has presented views, which are incompatible with the historical and religious foundations as well as the teachings of the Ahl al-Bayt (P.B.U.T.). Studying the political and administrative performance of Amir al-Momenin Ali (P.B.U.H.) during the historical events, as one of Madelung's notable interests, and relying on the Sunni sources, he believes that Imam Ali (P.B.U.H.) has had weak points in understanding the political issues and managing the political and social crises of Islamic society, because from his point of view, the sacred viewpoint towards the infallible Imams (P.B.U.T.) cannot be justified historically. Using a historical-theological approach and a descriptive-analytical method, and focusing on the Sunni and Shiite sources, while expressing the weakness of the author's research, this paper typified Madelung's historical views to answer the misconceptions and defend the political and social understanding and management of Imam Ali (P.B.U.H.) in solving the crisis.
Keywords: Madelung, the political and administrative performance of Imam Ali (P.B.U.H.), Islamic government.